Charagma Watch (July 22, 2003)
An Annotated Update of
"Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A." (1982, 1983)
by John and Sylvia Ronsvalle, empty tomb, inc., Champaign, IL


XXI. Human Microchip Implants and Terrorism

Posted: February 2, 2004

A. Introduction

1. Electronic Fund Transfer and Terrorism: 1982 Observations

In 1982, empty tomb staff developed a manuscript that considered the power of real time surveillance inherent in an Electronic Fund Transfer system. Further, as noted below, the manuscript observed, "Electronic Fund Transfer would benefit...a...society attempting to implement adequate controls because its national security is being threatened internally by disruptive conventional or nuclear terrorism." Following is a brief excerpt of relevant material from Chapter 5 of the 1982 manuscript.

Chapter 1 of The Final Report of the National Commission on Electronic Fund Transfer deals with privacy...

In Part VII of The Final Report, a section of Separate Statements by a number of the Commissioners, Albert A. Foer, Associate Director, Bureau of Competition, Federal Trade Commission, addresses the topic of privacy and focuses on a problem as follows:

The most dramatic danger of EFT, from the civil liberties perspective is real time surveillance. By this I mean a use of an EFT system to pinpoint at the time of an EFT transaction the physical location and/or identification of activities of a cardholder, for purposes unrelated to the functioning of the EFT system itself.314

The Commission did recommend, "that EFT systems should not be used for surveillance of individuals, either as to their physical location or patterns of behavior."

The Commission did recommend, "that EFT systems should not be used for surveillance of individuals, either as to their physical location or patterns of behavior."

Yet the text of the Report immediately following this recommendation includes important exceptions: "The legitimate needs of law enforcement agencies should be balanced against the individual's right to privacy. For example, law enforcement efforts should not be rendered ineffective against serious organized crime problems or serious threats to national security" (emphasis added)...315

In addition to providing consumer convenience and decreasing costs for consumers and private retailers and banking institutions, there would be incentives for governments to encourage widespread usage of Electronic Fund Transfer systems.

Electronic Fund Transfer would benefit either a communist society seeking further control of its citizenry or a capitalist society attempting to implement adequate controls because its national security is being threatened internally by disruptive conventional or nuclear terrorism.316

2. Potential Microchip Use and Terrorism: 1982 Observations

Following a discussion of microchips existing at that time, designed to be implanted into animals or humans, the 1982 manuscript discussed the conditions that might lead to widespread use of microchip identifiers in humans.

The use of a mark or microchip identifier might first be introduced into society as a generally beneficial security measure, perhaps in the control of criminals. Joseph Meyer, an engineer with the National Security Agency notes:

To the average person who is not a criminal, a big electronic system which affected the criminals but left him alone would not be regarded as a burden.317

The final step, mandatory use of a Personal Identification Number, in a Western society with its traditional emphasis on freedom, could come easily after a major threat to national security. Public support for a Governmental desire to know instantaneously the whereabouts of all citizens and aliens who make purchases as well as the time and content of their purchases for purposes of national security could swell dramatically and forcefully given certain circumstances. For example, such a move would seem much more reasonable after a terrorist group once held a major urban center such as New York, Chicago or Los Angeles hostage with the threat of detonating a powerful nuclear device. Consider the previous Wicklein (re Brazil) and Armer (re Soviet Secret Police) scenarios in regard to concerns for effective security.

In this case the usefulness of the EFT PIN system, with the number invisibly encoded on the body, would shift from providing added security for the individual's bank account. Rather this system would provide security for a nation and its wealth as a whole. This would be partly accomplished as indicated above through an increase in government's surveillance of its people's whereabouts and purchases.318

B. Terrorism Increased Interest in Security-Related Technology

1. Research

The September 11, 2001 terrorism acts increased interest in security-related technology research. Following are excerpts from an article on "security technology"— "a topic of increasing interest among UI researchers." The article, entitled, "Tech Research at UI Focused on U.S. Safety: 9/11 Sparked Shift to Security Technology Effort," stated:

The UI already has been designated a national center for computer security education. And it appears poised to win major National Science Foundation funding for a center it has started, involving 45 faculty members from a variety of fields, that's dedicated to ensuring the computer systems and networks we've come to rely on are trustworthy.

"We have enormous capability in data and information security," said David Daniel, dean of the College of Engineering and one of the UI officials working to create an umbrella Illinois Program for Security Technology at the university.

Daniel said that effort started shortly after the events of Sept. 11, 2001. In part, it was the same kind of reaction other Americans had in the wake of the attacks.

"We had a feeling that we wanted to roll up our sleeves," Daniel said. "We started breaking down the problems or threats. We went on sort of an information accumulation internal project."

They found UI researchers already engaged in nearly $30 million worth of projects related to homeland safety and security concerns...

Eventually, Daniel sees the possibility of several research centers at the UI focused on things like building safety, aviation security and chemical and biological threats, in addition to computer security.

The UI has invested several hundred thousand dollars in startup projects. The area looks to be a wellspring of federal funding. President Bush signed a defense-spending bill two weeks ago including more than $16 billion for research, up nearly 10 percent. There's a proposal for a five-year doubling of the National Science Foundation budget.

"The monies have not really started flowing to the universities yet, but we seem to be right on the precipice of that, and we think we're well-positioned," Daniel said.319

2. Law: Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act

a. Associated Press Article: May 14, 2002

The September 11, 2001 terrorism acts increased interest in security-related technology law:

President Bush signed an immigration bill Tuesday meant to screen out terrorists by using high-tech passports and more border enforcers to check millions of people who enter the United States each year...

Sen. Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif., called the measure "the most important bill passed post-9/11."

"It's the first time security has really become part of immigration policy," she said.

The new law will require that passports issued after 2003 contain fingerprints or facial recognition technology and be tamperproof. It will bar the use of certain visas by people from countries listed as terrorism sponsors.320

b. Office of the Press Secretary: May 14, 2002

The September 11, 2001 terrorism acts resulted in additional "biometric identification" tools being written into law:

The bill I sign today enhances our ongoing efforts to strengthen our borders...It makes it easier for the INS and other federal agencies to get better information about people and products that come into America. It requires every foreign visitor desiring entrance into the United States to carry a travel document containing biometric identification -- that would be fingerprints or facial recognition -- that will enable us to use technology to better deny fraudulent entry into America.321

C. Terrorism Increased Interest in Human Locator Devices

1. "Terrorism Is Shifting Attitudes": The Los Angeles Times: December 19, 2001

The Los Angeles Times reported that Applied Digital Solutions said that terrorism is influencing attitudes toward implantable chips.

A Florida company is poised to become the first to sell microchips designed to be implanted into human beings, an achievement that opens the door to new systems of medical monitoring and ID screening.

Implantable chips have long been discussed by technologists and denounced by those who object on religious grounds or fear their use by a totalitarian state. But the company that did the test, Applied Digital Solutions of Palm Beach, said the specter of terrorism is shifting attitudes. The direct union of man and computer is no longer dismissed out of hand.

"The bottom line is, when people are trying to regain their peace of mind, they're more open to new approaches," said Keith Bolton, Applied Digital's chief technology officer.322

2. After September 11 Terrorist Attacks, A Medical Consultant to Applied Digital Solutions, Dr. Richard Seelig, Injected Two Chips in September 2001: EE Times: January 7, 2002

Under a subheading, "Inspired by Sept. 11," one reads that a medical consultant to Applied Digital Solutions inserted two chips into himself in September 2001.

In September, Applied Digital Solutions implanted its first human chip when a New Jersey surgeon, Richard Seelig, injected two of the chips into himself. He placed one chip in his left forearm and the other near the artificial hip in his right leg.

"He was motivated after he saw firefighters at the World Trade Center in September writing their Social Security numbers on their forearms with Magic Markers," Bolton said. "He thought that there had to be a more sophisticated way of doing an identification."

Applied Digital said Seelig, who serves as a medical consultant to the company, has now had the chips implanted in him for three months with no signs of rejection or infection.

Ordinarily, the company said, the chips would be implanted in a doctor's office under local anesthesia.323

3. After September 11 Terrorist Attacks, Medical Director of Applied Digital Solutions, Dr. Richard Seelig, Inserted Two Chips on September 16, 2001: Miami Herald: March 10, 2002

After the September 11 terrorist attacks, the medical director of Applied Digital Solutions inserted two chips on September 16, 2001.

"The assets we've developed through this technology are so significant it's going to be the savior of the company," said Scott Silverman, who was appointed president of Applied [Digital Solutions] last week.

The company's plans for the chip were accelerated when Dr. Richard Seelig, Applied's medical applications director, inserted two chips -- one in his right forearm, the other in his right hip -- on Sept. 16. After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, he thought such a device could help identify bodies of victims.

"I would want my healthcare givers to have as much information about me," Seelig said. "You're gushing information, not trying to restrain access to them."324

4. "Sept. 11 Solidified...Resolve to Market the Human Chip": Associated Press: February 26, 2002

The September 11, 2001 terrorism acts "solidified…resolve to market the human chip."

A Florida technology company is poised to ask the government for permission to market a first-ever computer ID chip that could be embedded beneath a person's skin...

Other uses of the technology on the horizon, from an added device that would allow satellite tracking of an individual's every movement to the storage of sensitive data like medical records, are already attracting interest across the globe for tasks like foiling kidnappings or assisting paramedics.

Applied Digital Solutions' new "VeriChip" is another sign that Sept. 11 has catapulted the science of security into a realm with uncharted possibilities—and also new fears for privacy...

More than a decade ago, Applied bought a competing firm, Destron Fearing, which had been making chips implanted in animals for several years. Those chips were mainly bought by animal owners wanting to provide another way for pound workers to identify a lost pet.

Chips for humans aren't that much different.

But the company was hesitant to market them for people because of ethical questions. The devastation of Sept. 11 solidified the company's resolve to market the human chip and brought about a new sensibility about the possible interest.

"It's a sad time...when people have to wonder whether it's safe in their own country," [Keith] Bolton[, chief technology officer and a vice president at Applied Digital] said...

Applied Digital says technology to let the chip to be used for tracking is already well under development.

Eight Latin American companies have contacted Applied Digital and have openly encouraged the company to pursue the internal tracking devices. In some countries, kidnapping has become an epidemic that limits tourism and business.325

5. Human Locator Devices: Applied Digital Solutions Comments: 10meters.com

The September 11, 2001 terrorism acts increased interest in human locator devices.

Before Sept. 11, Digital Angel was simply an up-and-coming company with an honorable mission: creating cutting-edge location-technology products to help parents and caregivers keep track of both the whereabouts and basic well-being of loved ones...

The devices, scheduled to ship in early November, were "discovered" shortly after Sept. 11 by an anxious public. [Digital Angel's Chief Technology Officer Keith] Bolton said the callers wondered if the Digital Angel products could be used for more than wanderers.

Also of interest: the sophisticated technology the devices bring to location services. Digital Angel's products are able to read and return data from the interior of buildings...

As interest swelled, Digital Angel found itself in need of more devices than originally scheduled for distribution and has "accelerated the pace" of its manufacturing process, Bolton said...

"Everything has changed since Sept. 11," said Bolton. What hasn't changed, he added, is the Digital Angel mission to save lives.326

6. VeriChip Provided Positive Step after Sept. 11, 2001 Attack on World Trade Center: Leslie Jacobs: The Boston Globe: May 20, 2003

Leslie Jacobs, the mother in the first "chipped" family, decided that VeriChip provided a positive step after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center:

Since the attack on the World Trade Center on Sept. 11, 2001, she [Leslie Jacobs] continues, "we know that our lives are increasingly vulnerable. If we want increased safety, security, and peace of mind, we need to take positive steps. We've decided that having a VeriChip is one way to do just that."327

7. In Context of 9/11 Personal Security Outweighs Privacy Rights for Some: The Boston Globe: May 20, 2003

Applied Digital Solutions president Scott Silverman, in the context of both injected microchips and the events of 9/11, observes that personal security outweighs privacy rights for some.

For ADS's Silverman, both the VeriChip and its future GPS-based version are a matter of individual choice.

"No one is forcing you to have a VeriChip. If you want a chip in your right arm you are going to know it is there because you will see it injected. When you look at the events of 9/11 and the way people measure their own personal security today versus the way they did a few years ago, there is a much higher concern to make sure that family members are safe and sound and some people now put that above privacy rights."328

D. It Is Posited That Any Further Significant Terrorism in the U.S. Will Likely Increase Usage of Implanted Human Microchips

It is likely that the use of microchips implanted in humans as security devices would increase if further terrorist acts of mass destruction are carried out in the United States.

1. Shortcomings in Alternative Systems of Security

There are limits to facial recognition systems.

[UI Professor Thomas] Huang, a computer and electrical engineering professor, has been working on recognition systems for some time, for example, with the idea of making computers more user friendly.

Existing systems suffer from shortcomings he and his students are trying to overcome with better algorithms - the software that does the recognizing - and by techniques such as combining face and voice recognition to get highly accurate results, at least with a small database of users.

They're also using off-the-shelf parts, such as the video camera that serves as the computer's eye, in an effort to make such systems less expensive.

Still, while Huang thinks recognition systems have a future in "access control" from a security perspective, he's not sure they will ever be useful for picking the faces of bad guys out of the crowd, because faces can change too easily.

"Facial hair, hat, sunglasses, makeup cause a lot of problems," Huang said. "It's more useful for cooperative subjects ... in special cases like access to a lab, access to a computer, where ... the user wants to get in."329

2. Michael Kelly: Further Terrorism Would Restrict Liberties

The late Michael Kelly, editor of the Atlantic and a columnist for the Washington Post Writers Group discussed the conditions under which "the public will demand, and will get, immense restrictions on liberties":

Democracy in America does at this moment face a serious threat. But it is not the threat the judge has in mind, at least not directly. It is true that last September's unprecedented mass-slaughter of American citizens on American soil inevitably forced the government to take security measures that infringed on some rights and privileges. But these do not in themselves represent any real threat to democracy. A real threat could arise, however, should the government fail in its mission to prevent another Sept. 11. If that happens, the public will demand, and will get, immense restrictions on liberties. To maintain the security that allows the luxury of democracy, the government must temporarily insult democracy. Which it is, and generally properly, doing.330

3. Past Terrorism Increased Interest in Implanted Human Microchips

As noted elsewhere in this document, September 11, 2001, terrorism increased interest in human locator devices.

E. A Number of Informed Sources Assert Further Terrorism Will Take Place

1. Nuclear Terrorism: "Terrorists Will Get Nukes": Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld

A May 21, 2002 14:28 EDT, Associated Press article by John J. Lumpkin published on AOL News reported the U.S. Defense Secretary's assessment of the type and likelihood of further terrorist attacks.

Terrorists are sure to eventually acquire and use nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said Tuesday.

Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya and North Korea are developing such weapons of mass destruction and will supply them to terrorists to which they already are linked, Rumsfeld said.

"They (terrorists) inevitably will get their hands on them and they will not hesitate to use them," Rumsfeld told a Senate Appropriations subcommittee...

Rumsfeld declined to discuss specific terrorist threats, saying the government sees hundreds a day and as many as 90 percent of them are designed to test the government's response.

"They jerk us around, try to jerk us around, and test us," Rumsfeld said.

Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that while the war on terror has hurt al-Qaida, the terrorist network remains a threat. "Just like a wounded animal is the most dangerous, they (al-Qaida) still pose a threat to our armed forces," Myers said.

At his White House briefing, press secretary Ari Fleischer said he hadn't heard Rumsfeld's exact words, but that "the secretary knows what the president knows and that is that we're in the middle of a war to protect the country and diminish the ability of people who would do us harm from getting their hands on such weapons" ...

"We have, after Sept. 11, brought the war to the enemy. It does not surprise the American people that the enemy will now try to bring the war back to the United States," Fleischer said. "That's the definition of a war, and unfortunately we are in one."331

2. Terrorism: "another attack...near certainty": Vice President Dick Cheney

A May 21, 2002 14:28 EDT, Associated Press article by John J. Lumpkin published on AOL News reported Vice President Dick Cheney's assessment of the likelihood of further terrorist attacks.

Rumsfeld's warning was the latest administration voice suggesting another attack is inevitable. Last weekend Vice President Dick Cheney said another attack is a near certainty.332

3. Terrorism: "There will be another terrorist attack": FBI Director Robert Mueller

Another version of the May 21, 2002 Associated Press article by John J. Lumpkin, that had been published on AOL News, was published by Intercessors For America and reported FBI Director Robert Mueller's assessment of the likelihood of further terrorist attacks.

"There will be another terrorist attack. We will not be able to stop it," FBI Director Robert Mueller told a meeting of the National Association of District Attorneys on Monday. "It's something we all live with."

He said suicide bombers like those who have attacked Israeli buses and restaurants are inevitable in the United States. His words - "I wish I could be more optimistic" - came one day after Vice President Dick Cheney said it was almost a certainty the United States would be attacked again by terrorists.333

4. Terrorism: "New Terrorist Assault 'Almost a Certainty,' 9/11 Probe Finds ": Sen. Bob Graham, co-chairman of the Joint House-Senate Intelligence Committee probe

Jeff Johnson, Congressional Bureau Chief of Cybercast News Service reported Sen. Bob Graham's assessment of the likelihood of further terrorist attacks.

Results from the congressional inquiry into alleged intelligence failures leading up to the 9/11 terrorist attacks released Wednesday indicate a number of systemic problems with U.S. intelligence gathering, analysis, sharing, and response. The report was introduced with a somber warning from the co-chairman of the Joint House-Senate Intelligence Committee probe.

"It is almost a certainty that, in the coming months, Americans will face another attempted terrorist assault; an assault that could quite possibly be on the same scale as that of September the 11th, 2001," Sen. Bob Graham (D-Fla.).

"It is a certainty that such an attack will be attempted," Graham continued. "The question is whether we'll do a better job of intercepting it before it kills more people than we did prior to September the 11th."

Graham made those remarks prior to releasing the declassified version of the Joint Committee's findings and recommendations.334

5. Bioterrorism: "U.S. Vulnerable to Attack on Food Supply, Experts Say": National Research Council

An Associated Press article provided the National Research Council's assessment of the United States' vulnerability to bioterrorism.

A year after the Sept. 11 attacks, the United States remains vulnerable to bioterrorism aimed at farms that produce the nation's food, a panel of scientists said in a report released Thursday.

"It's not a matter of 'if.' It's a matter of when,' " said R. James Cook, a committee member from Washington State University. "While there may be a very low probability now, what about in 20 years?"

The scientists said an attack was unlikely to result in a famine or malnutrition but could shake public confidence in the food supply and devastate the economy—costing anywhere from millions of dollars to tens of billions of dollars.

The report was prepared by the National Research Council, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences.

It is one of the most comprehensive reviews of the nation's plans to fight bioterrorism.335

6. Nuclear Terrorism: "Virtually a Certainty": Warren Buffett

A May 6, 2002, CBS MarketWatch article headlined, "Buffett: Count on Another Terror Attack," reported Warren Buffett's assessment of the type and likelihood of further terrorist attacks.

Warren Buffett, celebrated as the "oracle of Omaha," has offered this grim prediction about terrorist attacks on U.S. soil: More lie ahead.

"Whether it'll happen in 10 years or 10 minutes, or 50 years...it's virtually a certainty," he told reporters. "We are the No. 1 target"...

Buffett told the more than 10,000 people gathered at what has been dubbed "Woodstock for capitalists" in his hometown that the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks "jolted" him and his companies. His insurance units lost billions of dollars...

And it cost him plenty. Between losses at General Re and Geico Insurance caused largely by the terrorist attacks, Berkshire's losses lopped $3.8 billion off its value and knocked Buffett's personal fortune down to $35 billion, according to Forbes magazine.

Buffett used the platform at the packed marathon annual meeting in his hometown to renew his calls for a federal terror insurance program and nuclear exclusions in insurance policies. Without those, he said, the insurance industry would be wiped out.

"We take on a lot of terrorism insurance, but we can't be unlimited," he said. "We can't insure ... Manhattan from a nuclear event"...

He's not covering nuclear, chemical or biological attacks, he said, asserting that no insurance company can take on the kind of capacity that a nuclear attack, for example, would require.336

7. Terrorism: "Next Time—The Question Is Not If, But When"

A Scripps Howard News Service article provided an assessment by some of the top terrorism experts about the likelihood of further terrorist attacks.

Most likely to be a suicide bomb blast, the next assault—if it succeeds—probably will bring a much smaller death toll than the 3,014 people who died in the unprecedented 9/11 tragedies.

That is the general consensus of some of the nation's top terrorism experts about the threat the nation faces, a year after the suicide planes slammed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and a Pennsylvania field.

Though the loose global terror network has been significantly disrupted, and its attempts to stage follow-up attacks have largely failed so far, analysts believe it is inevitable that al-Qaida will continue to try to strike at the United States, at home and abroad.

"Without doubt, there will be an attack, probably sooner rather than later,," said Gregory Treverton, a terrorism expert at the RAND think tank, which conducts research for the Pentagon and other national security agencies.337

8. Weapon of Mass Destruction in Next Two Years: "U.S.: High Chance of al-Qaida WMD Attack": Associated Press: June 10, 2003

Associated Press Writer Edith M. Lederer reported on a U.S. government report regarding the likelihood of an attack using a weapon of mass destruction.

There is a "high probability" that al-Qaida will attempt an attack with a weapon of mass destruction in the next two years, the U.S. government said in a report Monday...

The report said the terrorist organization "will continue its efforts to acquire and develop biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons."

"We judge that there is a high probability that al-Qaida will attempt an attack using a CBRN weapon within the next two years," it said...

"Al Qaida most likely will use the same tactics that were successful on Sept. 11 in carrying out any future attack in the United States, including efforts by cell members to avoid drawing attention to themselves and to minimize contact with militant Islamic groups and mosques in the United States. They will also maintain strict operational and communications security," the report said.338

F. An Exploration of the Relation, If Any, between Terrorism and Poverty

1. Kathy Read: Publisher of the Wilson Quarterly, The Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars: "America Should Attack Terrorists and the Terror of Hunger":

Kathy Read states that it is "nonsense" that "America is to blame for not addressing the poverty and hopelessness that the writers contend breed acts of terror." Read writes:

Even before justice is done—and it will be—Americans ought to consider another form of terror that we have the power to eradicate: the terror that stems from realizing you and your loved ones are slowly starving to death.

I've seen a lot of columns recently that somehow suggest America is to blame for not addressing the poverty and hopelessness that the writers contend breed acts of terror.

Those suggestions, of course, are nonsense from people who let their emotions get in the way of critical thinking...

The plain truth is that terrorists who attacked our common humanity on Sept. 11 are little more than thugs...

Having acknowledged that should not dull Western guilt about our callousness and complicity in allowing a world in which 3 billion people subsist on less than $2 a day and hundreds of millions of children go to bed hungry every night...

There's also talk of building a memorial to the victims, but I doubt if mere marble or sculptured metal can really do justice to our national tragedy.

A far better way to memorialize an act of hate is with an act of love. The best veteran's memorial we've ever constructed in this country is the one we constructed to World War II veterans during the Truman administration.

It was called the Marshall Plan, and we used it to provide massive aid that quickly helped rebuild the nations we fought. In all of human history, it was an unprecedented gesture. We fought a bloody war to save our own democracy and then—instead of subjugation—bestowed that precious gift on our enemies.

Today, two peace—loving democracies—Germany and Japan—are the most fitting memorials to the 291,557 American service personnel who died in World War II.

Alleviating and eventually eliminating world hunger, I believe, would be the most fitting memorial we could construct to honor September's victims of terror. '

A good place to start would be congressional passage of a fully funded international school lunch program. The idea was first proposed by former Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern. With bipartisan help from former Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole, McGovern persuaded President Clinton to provide $300 million to jump-start the program in 1999.

President Bush endorsed the concept earlier this year when he reappointed McGovern as U.S. representative to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Program in Rome.

Unfortunately, the initial U.S. commitment is only about one-fourth of the money needed to get McGovern's global school lunch program fully operational.

Increasing that amount by $900 million—about a half of 1 percent of our current budget surplus—and swiftly putting the program into effect would make a powerful statement about America's commitment to humanity.

Eliminating Vitamin A deficiency, for instance, will prevent the deaths of as many as 2 million children a year as well as 500,000 cases of blindness.

Ending hunger establishes hope, and hopeful humans have the will to pursue education and a better life. That better life can best be fulfilled under governments that encourage political and economic freedoms.

We can never restore the dead to life; but we can honor their sacrifice by resurrecting the lives of millions now living.339

2. Associated Press: U.N. General Assembly: Discussion of Terrorism: October 3, 2001

The U.N. General Assembly provided a forum in which a relation between extremism and poverty was asserted.

Arab nations on Tuesday pledged to eradicate terrorism but demanded independence for Palestinians, whom they called "victims of modern terrorism."

The debate came during the second day of a weeklong session of the U.N. General Assembly to discuss terrorism after the Sept. 11 attacks against the World Trade Center's twin towers and the Pentagon.

Pakistan, which has pledged support for the U.S. campaign to punish Osama bin Laden and his network, also warned that the West must do more to eliminate world poverty, which it said breeds extremists...

On Tuesday, Pakistani U.N. Ambassador Shamshad Ahmad said his country stood firm in its pledge to aid a global coalition on terrorism. But he said more must be done to fight poverty and "the inequality of societies" that leads to resentment and extremism.340

3. San Francisco Chronicle: "Secular States in Mideast Feel Threatened": October 21, 2001

A San Francisco Chronicle article provided an analysis of the "underlying appeal of the Islamic movements" as they relate to the poor.

"Secular nationalism failed to deliver a winning war against Israel," says Dr. Mohammed el Sayed Said, assistant director of the prestigious Center for Political and Strategic Studies in Cairo, "and secular liberalism failed to address social issues—extreme poverty, dispossession, the concentration of land in a few hands."

Reeling with demoralization, "a whole generation gave up on both approaches and started looking to the mosque for guidance," he says.

"The underlying appeal of the Islamic movements is that they appear to speak for the poor," says a political scientist in Cairo. Their influence is less about religion than it is about their monopoly today on the language of the oppressed."341

4. Associated Press: World Economic Forum: U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan: February 4, 2002

Discussants at the World Economic Forum reviewed how to stop terrorism, in the context of poverty.

Presidents, kings and moguls wrapped up five days of swanky parties, serious elbow-rubbing and weighty discussions on Monday on how to stop terrorism, resolve long-standing international conflicts and ease grinding poverty.

With luxury jets waiting to whisk the world's power players to their homes, the World Economic Forum closed its one-time New York experiment and 32nd annual meeting with a warning by U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan that the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks have exposed a huge gap between the world's rich and poor.

In remarks to the forum's 2,700 participants, Annan encouraged business and governments to give hope to billions of people struggling to survive in developing countries.

Otherwise, Annan said the world risks the collapse or relapse of poor nations into conflict and anarchy where they would be "a menace to their neighbors and potentially - as the events of Sept. 11 so brutally reminded us - a threat to global security."342

5. Associated Press: World Economic Forum: Secretary of State Colin Powell: February 2, 2002

Participants at the World Economic Forum discussed the need to stop poverty as part of fighting terrorism.

Americans can fight terrorism around the globe but can't eliminate it without stopping the poverty and despair that helps create terrorist, participants said Friday on the second day of the World Economic Forum.

"We have to show people who might move in the direction of terrorism that there is a better way," Secretary of State Colin Powell told movers and shakers from around the world, who are discussing the globe's biggest problems at a Manhattan hotel...

Powell, speaking at a panel on building a coalition for a stable world, said the United States is just beginning its campaign against terrorism and will "make sure we root it out, wherever it exists."

But America will also help countries solve problems that make them hotbeds for terrorism, Powell added. He cited Afghanistan, where he said the United States will continue humanitarian efforts to rebuild the shattered country.343

6. Associated Press: World Economic Forum: February 1, 2002

Participants in the World Economic Forum discussed the relationship between fighting terrorism and economic considerations.

Giving up their usual lofty retreat in the Alps to come to terrorism-shattered New York, participants in the World Economic Forum pledged to turn their attention to the world's needs instead of its balance sheets.

The nearly 3,000 attendees - a who's who of business leaders, politicians and celebrities - kicked off the five-day meeting Thursday as hordes of police on Manhattan's streets braced for unrest that never materialized. Forum participants painted the Sept. 11 attacks as a global wake-up call and encouraged efforts against poverty, the AIDS epidemic and other scourges that have bred frustration and anger toward wealthy countries...

The forum, in its 32nd year, is being held somewhere other than the Swiss retreat of Davos for the first time since its founding. The move was meant to show sympathy for New York - and to improve the image of the forum, often seen as a pricey retreat for rich businessmen.

"We are gathered here to exercise, more than ever, leadership in fragile times and to develop a vision for a shared future," Klaus Schwab, the forum's founder, said at the official opening ceremony...

The meeting opened with an accounting of the world's economy following the Sept. 11 attacks. Economists predicted that the U.S. economy would bounce back by year's end, with Europe expected to follow closely behind. But they said there was no end in sight for Japan's 10-year-old slump.

Helping the weakest economies and creating strong middle classes there are the best ways to fight terrorism in the long term, panelists said at an afternoon discussion.

"When you have that, it's easier to have democratic values and practices," said Alain Dieckhoff, the research director at France's Center for International Studies and Research...

More than 2,700 participants from 106 countries are attending the meeting, including 30 heads of state, 100 Cabinet ministers and 74 ambassadors.

Speakers include King Abdullah 11 of Jordan; Kofi Annan, secretary-general of the United Nations; Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, president of the Philippines; Michael Dell, chairman and chief executive of Dell Computer, and Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates.

President Bush won't attend but is sending Secretary of State Colin Powell and Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill.344

7. Associated Press: U.N. International Conference on Financing for Development: March 22, 2002

World leaders discussed the connection between eliminating terrorism and combating terrorism.

Nations of the world launched a major initiative Friday to combat poverty, with rich countries promising to try to double their aid and poor countries agreeing to do more with what they get.

Leaders of poor countries from Tunisia to Venezuela and rich countries from France to the United States all agreed that terrorism will not be eliminated without a major push to help the world's poorest. Three billion people - half the world's population - live on less than $2 a day.

"We fight against poverty because hope is an answer to terror," said President Bush, adding: "Men and women were made for freedom, and prosperity comes as freedom triumphs."

French President Jacques Chirac said world leaders need to commit the same resources to battling poverty as they did to combatting terrorism after the Sept. 11 attacks in the United States.

"What can be done against terrorism can surely be done against poverty, in the name of a more human, manageable globalization," he said. "Let us form a coalition to build together a universal civilization where there is a place for everyone, where everyone is respected, and where everyone has a chance"...

The adoption of the "Monterrey Consensus" on Friday capped the weeklong U.N. International Conference on Financing for Development, the first anti-poverty summit to bring together heads of state, finance ministers, business leaders, aid activists and international lending institutions...

The document, which was approved months earlier at the United Nations, was adopted by consensus at the summit Friday morning. Already, the United States and Europe pledged billions of dollars more in development aid last week.345

8. Associated Press: U.N. International Conference on Financing for Development: President George Bush: March 22, 2002

An Associated Press article reported President Bush's on the relationship between poverty and terrorism.

As fresh terrorist worries loomed, President Bush told a U.N. poverty summit on Friday that the United States will lead rich nations in helping the world's most desperate regions prosper because "hope is an answer to terror."

"History has called us to a titanic struggle whose stakes could not be higher because we're fighting for freedom itself. We're pursuing great and worthy goals - to make the world safer and, as we do, to make it better," Bush told some four dozen heads of state meeting here.

Outlining his new foreign aid doctrine, the president pledged to press Congress to approve within the next 12 months the first wave of his proposed $10 billion, three year program of additional funds rewarded to poor nations only if they root out corruption, commit to open markets and undertake serious political reform.

"By insisting on reform, we do the work of compassion," Bush said at the U.N. International Conference on Financing for Development, in which 171 countries participated.

The United States is committed to helping the world's poorest people, Bush said, as part of a "new compact for development defined by greater accountability." He called liberty, education and the rule of law "the conditions of development."

"And they are the common hopes of mankind," he said.

"We fight against poverty because hope is an answer to terrorism," Bush said. "We fight against poverty because opportunity is a fundamental right and human dignity. We fight against poverty because faith requires it and conscience demands it. And we fight against poverty with the growing conviction that major progress is within our reach."

Bush said the United States is determined to challenge "the poverty and hopelessness and lack of education and failed governments that too often allow conditions that terrorists can seize and try to turn to their advantage."346

9. Associated Press: "Bankers, IMF Discuss Debt, Poverty": November 19, 2001

World Bank President James Wolfensohn commented on the global import of "poverty and distress" in light of terrorism.

"There is, I think, an almost uniform recognition that poverty and distress in one part of the world is poverty and distress in another," World Bank President James Wolfensohn said. "The notion of two worlds - the rich and poor, or the developed and developing world - collapsed with the World Trade Center."347

10. Christian Century: "Collective Consciences": U.S. Catholic Bishops: December 5, 2001

The U.S. Catholic Bishops commented on poverty that is exploited by terrorists.

In Washington, D.C., also on November 15, the U.S. Catholic bishops gave greater support to America's military actions, saying the "dreadful deeds of September 11 cannot go unanswered." The bishops, approving the statement in a 167-4 vote after a wide-ranging debate, cautioned that more attention must be paid to "those conditions of poverty and injustice which are exploited by terrorists."348

11. Associated Press: Louis Farrakhan: September 16, 2001

Louis Farrakhan was quoted in a September 16, 2001 AP article.

Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, at a mosque in Chicago, condemned the "wild beasts" who perpetrated the assault and supported harsh punishment for them.

But Farrakhan also argued U.S. foreign policy fostered hatred overseas, a feeling that could change if the government did more to help poor countries.349

12. News-Gazette: "Martin Marty": September 16, 2001

Martin Marty comments on the relationship between "movements of discontent" and poverty.

If fundamental religious believers committed the terrorist attacks on the United States last week, the Rev. Martin Marty, one of America's foremost theologians who lives in the Chicago suburbs, knows some of their mind-sets...

Marty, professor emeritus of the Divinity School at The University of Chicago, was project director for the recently completed five-year Fundamentalism Project of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The project studied comparative fundamentalist religious movements around the world.

Marty is scheduled to talk in Champaign-Urbana Thursday. He was invited months ago by the Center for Advanced Study at the University of Illinois and the Mortenson Center for International Library Programs. His speech, "Religion on the Global Scene: The Killer that Heals," also was planned months ago.

"I'm changing it in a sense that what might have been whispers are now shouts and what would have been footnotes are now headlines," Marty said...

The lecture is planned at 4 p.m. Thursday in the Colwell Playhouse of the Krannert Center for the Performing Arts...

In the speech, Marty said he would talk about some of his research findings. He stated some of his points...

"I also plan to talk about the healing side of religion," he said about his talk Thursday.

"Movements of discontent often are born of discontent occasioned by poverty," he said. For the future, "Maybe more generous policies to help abolish poverty would help."350






314EFT in the United States: Policy Recommendations and the Public Interest, The Final Report of the National Commission on Electronic Fund Transfer, Washington, D.C., October 28, 1977, p. 257.
315EFT in the United States: Policy Recommendations and the Public Interest, The Final Report of the National Commission on Electronic Fund Transfer, Washington, D.C., October 28, 1977, p. 25.
316John and Sylvia Ronsvalle, "Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A.," Chapter 5 of typescript, empty tomb, inc., Urbana, Ill., 1982 with minor edits in 1983, that sans ms. Chapter 5 was published as The Hidden Billions: The Potential of the Church in the U.S.A. (Champaign, Ill.: C-4 Resources, 1984). The major portion of "Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A.," was subsequently published on the Web in 2003 under a "Theology and Technology" heading at http://www.emptytomb.org/TheolTech.html.
317Joseph A. Meyer, "Crime Deterrent Transponder System," Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Vol. AES - 7, No. 1, January 1971, p. 19.
318John and Sylvia Ronsvalle, "Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A.," Chapter 5 of typescript, empty tomb, inc., Urbana, Ill., 1982 with minor edits in 1983, that sans ms. Chapter 5 was published as The Hidden Billions: The Potential of the Church in the U.S.A. (Champaign, Ill.: C-4 Resources, 1984). The major portion of "Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A.," was subsequently published on the Web in 2003 under a "Theology and Technology" heading at http://www.emptytomb.org/TheolTech.html.
319Greg Kline, "Tech Research at UI Focused on U.S. Safety: 9/11 Sparked Shift to Security Technology Effort," Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 3 November 2002, p. A-5.
320Scott Lindlaw, Associated Press Writer; "Bush Signs Border Security Bill;" washingtonpost.com; published Tuesday, May 14, 2002 5:57 PM; <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A16046-2002May14?language=printer>; p. 1 of 5/16/02 8:40 AM printout.
321President George W. Bush; "President Signs Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act": Remarks by the President at Signing of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act, Presidential Hall, Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building; Office of the Press Secretary, The White House; published May 14, 2002; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/05/print/20020514-4.html; p. 2 of 5/16/02 8:48 AM printout.
322David Streitfeld; "A Chip ID That's Only Skin-Deep;" Los Angeles Times; published December 19, 2001; Start Page: A.1; <http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/main/doc/000000095988263.html?MAC=099cdc7812e33c01a59498a6dee6b5b2&QIID=000000095988263&FMT=FT>; p. 1 of 4/17/02 11:45 AM printout.
323Charles J. Murray; "Injectable Chip Opens Door To 'Human Bar Code';" EE Times; published January 7, 2002 12:38 p.m. EST; http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20020104S0044; pp. 2-3 of 3/9/02 3:30 PM printout.
324Shannon Tan; "An ID Idea: Microchips Under Your Skin;" Miami Herald; published March 10, 2002; http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/2828025.htm; pp. 2-3 of 1/21/03 10:55 AM printout.
325Christopher Newton, Associated Press Writer; "U.S. to Weigh Computer Chip Implant;" Associated Press article on washingtonpost.com; published February 26, 2002 7:55 PM; <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A7240-2002Feb26?language=printer>; pp. 1-2 of 2/28/02 7:49 AM printout.
326Karen E. Peterson; "A 'Digital Angel' for Troubling Times"; 10meters.com; published n.d.; http://www.10meters.com/digitalangel.html; pp. 1-4 of 4/24/02 9:36 AM printout.
327Angela Swafford; "Chipping Away at Security Fears"; Boston Globe, p. C9, section: Health Science; published May 20, 2003; <http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=BG&p_theme=bg&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_text_search-0=VeriChip&s_dispstring=VeriChip%20AND%20date(last%2030%20days)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=-30qzD&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no>; p. 2 of 5/22/03 3:03 PM printout.
328Angela Swafford; "Chipping Away at Security Fears"; Boston Globe, p. C9, section: Health Science; published May 20, 2003; <http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=BG&p_theme=bg&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_text_search-0=VeriChip&s_dispstring=VeriChip%20AND%20date(last%2030%20days)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=-30qzD&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no>; pp. 3-4 of 5/22/03 3:03 PM printout.
329Greg Kline, "Tech Research at UI Focused on U.S. Safety: 9/11 Sparked Shift to Security Technology Effort," Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 3 November 2002, pp. A-1, 5.
330Michael Kelly; "Secrecy, Case By Case"; Washington Post; published Wednesday, August 28, 2002; Page A23; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A4518-2002Aug27¬Found=true; 12/31/02 2:24 PM printout; also published as "Justice Department Cries 'Terrorism" Once Too Often"; Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 30 August 2002, p. A-9.
331John J. Lumpkin; "Rumsfeld: Terrorists Will Get Nukes;" Associated Press: AOL News; published May 21, 2002 14:28 EDT; pp. 1-2 of 5/21/02 printout.
332John J. Lumpkin; "Rumsfeld: Terrorists Will Get Nukes;" Associated Press: AOL News; published May 21, 2002 14:28 EDT; p. 1 of 5/21/02 printout.
333John J. Lumpkin; "Rumsfeld: Terrorists Will Get Nuclear Weapons: Defense Secretary Testifies before Senate Panel;" Associated Press: Intercessors For America; published May 21, 2002; http://www.ifa-usapray.org/ARCHIVE_TERRORISM/Rumsfeld Says Terrorists Will Get Nuclear Weapons - May 21, 2002.html; p. 2 of 1/3/03 2:34 PM printout.
334Jeff Johnson, Congressional Bureau Chief; "New Terrorist Assault 'Almost a Certainty,' 9/11 Probe Finds;" Cybercast News Service; published 2002; http://new.crosswalk.com/news/1176057.html; p. 1 of 12/12/02 8:49 AM printout.
335"U.S. Vulnerable to Attack on Food Supply, Experts Say," an Associated Press (Washington) article appearing in Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 20 September 2002, sec. A, p. 3.
336"Buffett: Count on Another Terror Attack;" CBS MarketWatch; published May 6, 2002, last update 2:10 PM ET; <http://cbs.marketwatch.com/news/story.asp?guid={CCB4454F-33FE-4A7D-A8FD-54B1A9A23451}&siteid=mktw&dist=&archive=true>; pp. 1-2 of 5/6/02 4:18 PM printout.
337Lisa Hoffman, "Next Time—The Question Is Not If, But When," a Scripps Howard News Service article appearing in Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 8 September 2002, sec. B, p. 1.
338Edith M. Lederer; "U.S.: High Chance of al-Qaida WMD Attack;" Associated Press article on washingtonpost.com; published June 10, 2003 10:17 AM; <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38993-2003Jun10.html>; pp. 1-2 of 6/11/03 9:20 AM printout.
339Kathy Read, "America Should Attack Terrorists and the Terror of Hunger," Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 30 September 2001, sec. B, p. 4.
340"Nations Vow to Assist in Effort," an Associated Press article appearing in Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 3 October 2001, sec. A, p. 3.
341Frank Viviano, San Francisco Chronicle, "Secular States in Mideast Feel Threatened," Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 21 October 2001, sec. B, p. 4.
342Eileen Alt Powell, AP Business Writer; "World Economic Forum Wraps Up;" washingtonpost.com; published February 4, 2002 8:52 PM; <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A23307-2002Feb4?Ianguage=printer>; p. 1 of 2/6/02 8:04 AM printout.
343"Powell: U.S. Will Battle Poverty," an Associated Press article appearing in Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 2 February 2002, sec. A, p. 3.
344Chris Hawley; "World Forum Looks at Global Security;" Associated Press (New York): AOL News; published February 1, 2002 0401 EST; pp. 1-2 of 2/1/02 printout.
345Niko Price; "World Leaders to Give More to Poor;" Associated Press (Monterrey, Mexico): AOL News; published March 22, 2002 1430 EST; pp. 1-2 of 3/22/02 printout.
346Sandra Sobieraj; "Bush Vows to Help Globe's Poor: New Terrorism Worries Follow President on Latin American Trip;" Associated Press (Monterrey, Mexico): AOL News; published March 22, 2002 1459 EST; p. 1 of 3/22/02 printout.
347"Bankers, IMF Discuss Debt, Poverty," an Associated Press (Ottawa) article appearing in Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 19 November 2001, sec. A, p. 5.
348"Collective Consciences," Christian Century, 5 December 2001, p. 10.
349Rachael Zoll; "Americans Fill Churches to Pray;" Associated Press: AOL News; published September 16, 2001 2004 EDT; p. 3 of 9/17/02 printout.
350Lynda Zimmer, "Fundamentalist Religion Expert to Speak Here," Champaign (Ill.) News-Gazette, 16 September 2001, sec. E, p. 6.





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