Charagma Watch (July 22, 2003)
An Annotated Update of
"Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A." (1982, 1983)
by John and Sylvia Ronsvalle, empty tomb, inc., Champaign, IL


XXII. Human Microchip Implants: Evaluation

Posted: February 4, 2004

A. Air Force 2025: Implanted Microscopic Chips: "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability," "A Research Paper Presented To Air Force 2025"

Of interest in Air Force 2025, a study (see "Disclaimer" below for a brief description) is the "Ethical and Public Relations Issues" section below, which notes that, "Implanting 'things' in people raises ethical and public relations issues.112 While these concerns may be founded on today's thinking, in 2025 they may not be as alarming. We already are evolving toward technology implanting."351 The following material from Air Force 2025 is included in order to provide a reasonable degree of context for these comments from the "Ethical and Public Relations Issues" section.

1. "Disclaimer"

A "Disclaimer" at the beginning of "Information Operations" includes a brief explanation of Air Force 2025. Following is the text of the "Disclaimer."

2025 is a study designed to comply with a directive from the chief of staff of the Air Force to examine the concepts, capabilities, and technologies the United States will require to remain the dominant air and space force in the future. Presented on 17 June 1996, this report was produced in the Department of Defense school environment of academic freedom and in the interest of advancing concepts related to national defense. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States government.

This report contains fictional representations of future situations/scenarios. Any similarities to real people or events, other than those specifically cited, are unintentional and are for purposes of illustration only.

This publication has been reviewed by security and policy review authorities, is unclassified, and is cleared for public release.352

2. "Executive Summary"

The following excerpted passages from the "Executive Summary" provide background and context for "implanted microscopic chips" discussed in the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability." "Implanted microscopic chips" are intended to be used for "computer-generated mental visualizations," in order, via a system, called the Cyber Situation, to help optimize "commanders' ability to operate air and space systems. The Cyber Situation enables commanders and decision makers to have in-time access to the battlespace, characterize the nature of the engagement, determine the calculated probabilities of success from the various authorized lethal or nonlethal options, decide what to do, employ the weapons chosen, and receive in-time feedback on the result of the engagement.

In its most basic form, commanders have always performed the functions of observe, orient, decide, and act (OODA Loop) to prosecute military operations.1 As with Alexander the Great, history shows the military commander who best analyzes, decides, and controls the speed of the engagement prevails in nearly every conflict. To master the OODA Loop, military leaders have pushed technology to obtain more information.2 Ironically, this situation now leads to the requirement to solve two fundamental challenges if the United States expects to maintain air and space dominance in 2025. First, the proliferation of unintegrated military war-fighting architectures gives the commander potentially conflicting perspectives of the battlespace.3 Second, the explosion of available information creates an environment of mental overload leading to flawed decision making. Failure to master these challenges critically weakens the military instrument of power. This paper presents a solution to these challenges by confronting commanders as they employ future airpower forces.

Regarding the first challenge, the large number of specialized war-fighting architectures makes information integration supporting overall coordination and control more important and more difficult. Simultaneously, the speed and the range of modern weapons drastically reduces the time commanders have to integrate conflicting information and decide on a course of action.

The second challenge is to harness the information explosion to combat mental overload, thus improving decision making. Recent exercises reveal an alarming number of unread messages because of information overload.4 As the quantity of data rises, the difficulty of preparing and interpreting it for decision making grows. Traditionally, the military attempted to solve this problem by increasing the number of communications nodes. These past solutions only injected additional inputs and information without improving decision-making capability.

The optimum solution must integrate the functions within the OODA Loop and allow the commander to control the momentum of the cycle. This paper describes how a system, called the Cyber Situation, can do just that, thus optimizing commanders' ability to operate air and space systems. The Cyber Situation enables commanders and decision makers to have in-time access to the battlespace, characterize the nature of the engagement, determine the calculated probabilities of success from the various authorized lethal or nonlethal options, decide what to do, employ the weapons chosen, and receive in-time feedback on the result of the engagement.

The Cyber Situation system includes five major components. First, all-source information collectors will transmit raw data to the Information Integration Center (IIC), as discussed below. Second, archival databases, linked to the IIC, will be used for historical analyses to fill information gaps if the data is not available for collection. Third, the IIC, an integrated and interconnected constellation of "smart" satellites will analyze, correlate, fuse, and deconflict all relayed data. Fourth, implanted microscopic chips link users to the IIC and create computer-generated mental visualizations.5 The visualization encompasses the individual and allows the user to place himself into the selected battlespace. Fifth, lethal and nonlethal weapons will be linked to the IIC, allowing authorized users to employ them from the Cyber Situation.

Implied in the Cyber Situation are five key technologies evolving on separate paths that will synergize by 2025 to achieve this goal. They include collection platforms, communications infrastructure, computing power, intelligent software, and human systems and biotechnology. Most of these technologies will evolve through the commercial community, but the military must focus research and development efforts on biological and computational intelligent software and biotechnology breakthroughs to allow mental visualization.353

3. "Implanted Microscopic Chip": Two Functions

The implanted microscopic brain chip is intended to perform two functions, as described in Chapter 4 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

The implanted microscopic brain chip110 performs two functions. First, it links the individual to the IIC, creating a seamless interface between the user and the information resources (in-time collection data and archival databases). In essence, the chip relays the processed information from the IIC to the user. Second, the chip creates a computer-generated mental visualization based upon the user's request. The visualization encompasses the individual and allows the user to place himself into the selected battlespace.354

4. "Human Systems and Biotechnology: Charting the Brain"

"[T]o place the human computer interface directly in the brain" is "[t]he logical extension" considered in Chapter 3 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

Computers can play a significant role in nearly every area of human-information processing. Their potential lies in organizing information to assist human decision making. They can produce more options than a human brain can recall.91 In fact, computers have become the preferred medium for information storage and recall.92

However, a gap still exists in the information flow between humans and computers. Information is processed by a human looking at a screen, reading the data, and translating it into something useful through internal thought. "We talk longingly about human-computer interactions and conversational systems, and yet we are fully prepared to leave one participant in this dialogue totally in the dark. It is time to make computers see and hear."93 Users should "converse" with computers. Intelligent systems outlined above provide only part of the answer to improve human-computer interaction. The missing piece is a better way to format and transmit information from the digital computer processor in the computer chip to the analog human processor in the human brain.

Instead of formatting a cathode ray tube (CRT) to more easily access and display data, a computer can be designed and programmed to bypass the CRT and format information which can be immediately processed by the brain. The logical extension would be to place the human computer interface directly in the brain. Some significant progress already has been made in this area by the Stanford University research center and their development of a nerve chip.

It is an electronic interface for individual nerve cells to communicate with a computer. This human-machine linkage will. . . enhance human capability in many ways. If artificial eyes can convert video to nerve signals, won't it be possible to use the same technique to superimpose computer-generated information in front of one's field of view?94

This capability will have extraordinary commercial applications from medical advances. These advances will help restore patients with damaged neural, audio, and visual systems as well as enable individuals to achieve the "ultimate virtual reality trip."95355

5. "Human Systems and Biotechnology: Visualization and Mental Imaging"

[A] brain implant hooked to the all the sensory segments of the brain, not just the eye" is considered in Chapter 3 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

This second broad category encompasses a realm of the cyberspace essential to the concept. Developing technologies are based around the idea of virtual projection systems that evolve into holographic image projection. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications Virtual Reality Laboratory "is a research facility engaged in the exploration of new methods of visualizing an interfacing with scientific data and simulations."96 To further their objectives, they have created the CAVE a "surround-screen surround-sound, projection-based virtual reality system."97 Multiple participants can enter the CAVE and interact by wearing stereo glasses rather than a helmet. "The CAVE can be coupled to remote data sources, super computers and scientific instruments via high-speed networks."98 The NWV Information Technology Panel considers significant virtual reality advancements in the next 10 to 20 years. However, the display mechanism will primarily involve a helmet.

Commercial applications are easy to envision, witness the growing entertainment market for virtual reality games. This appears to be the next step from video teleconferencing. Another useful application will be for training systems-especially simulations.99 This has wide commercial applications, especially as future systems will require such high-knowledge levels to use them as transportation and manufacturing.

A more specific military application of this type of technology is the DOD simulation network (SimNet). This capability allows a simulator to emulate a battlefield precisely. Trainees sit in their own aircraft or tank simulator and are able to "view" the battlefield from their own perspective. "Army tankers in trainers in Fort Knox can look out of their sites and see the same location-only from each of their individual perspectives. Air Force pilots in California can 'fly' missions . . . at the same time."100

A combination of brain processes and visual imaging already has been developed in the laboratory. The California Institute of Technology has developed an energy efficient computer chip which emulates the analog thinking of the human brain. It is specifically modeled on the construction of the human brain, specifically the cerebral cortex.101 When this capability is fully mature, this chip could provide the baseline for a brain implant hooked to the all the sensory segments of the brain, not just the eye.356

6. "Bringing It Altogether--The Nexus: Human Systems and Biotechnology"

The need for "one big leap over a single chasm"—that is, the chasm of "understanding the way information is formatted in the brain and how it is used" is considered in Chapter 3 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

This area requires the most work to achieve the Cyber Situation. Work is expected to continue at a modest pace until a breakthrough in...this technology is achieved.107 Like many advanced research areas, work here will require one big leap over a single chasm. In this case, the chasm is understanding the way information is formatted in the brain and how it is used. Once this chasm is achieved, progress in human computer interaction will grow exponentially and quickly catch up with the other technology areas.

By 2025 the five technology areas will be effectively linked to develop the Cyber Situation to enable commanders to achieve information dominance. The next chapter will describe the Cyber Situation system, its components, and how it meets the attributes of the OODA Loop tasks.357

7. "Conclusion"

That the "brain chip" technology was not "well along in development" as of 1996, is noted in Chapter 8 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

Once a decision had been reached, the commander transmits execution orders. These orders must be properly formatted and transmitted to subordinate units for action. Again, there is an unavoidable time lag between when the orders are transmitted and when they are acted upon. In these precious hours, the situation the commander desires to effect can change dramatically.

With the capability provided by the Cyber Situation, the commander can employ forces instantly and flexibly. Whether the weapon of choice is a laser, UAV, or F-22, through the Cyber Situation the commander has instant access to it.

What is even more compelling about the capability available through the Cyber Situation is that with the exception of the brain chip, the technologies required to field it are well along in development in 1996. Communications architectures are growing in both commercial and military applications and computer power is still on an exponential growth rate. Software, too, is becoming more intelligent. Indeed, the required capability is on the horizon.358

8. "Cyber Situation Components: Why the Implanted Microscopic Chip?"

The question of "Why the implanted microscopic chip?" is addressed in Chapter 4 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

While other methods such as specially configured rooms, special helmets, or sunglasses may be used to interface the user with the IIC, the microscopic chip is the most viable. Two real operational concerns support the use of implanted chips and argue against larger "physical" entities to access the Cyber Situation.

First, future operations will demand a highly flexible and mobile force that is ready at moment's notice to employ aerospace power. The chip will give these forces the ability to communicate, visualize, and prosecute military operations. Having to manage and deploy a "physical" platform or room hampers mobility and delays time-sensitive operations. US aerospace forces must be prepared to fight or to conduct mobility or special operations anywhere in the world on extremely short notice although some of these operations may be staged directly from the continental United States.111

Second, a physical entity creates a target vulnerable to enemy attack or sabotage. A highly mobile information operations center created with the chip-IIC interface makes it much more elusive to enemy attack. These reasons argue against a larger physical entity for the Cyber Situation.

While this is a reasonable portability rationale for the use of chip, some may wonder, "Why not use special sunglasses or helmets?" The answer is simple. An implanted microscopic chip does not require security measures to verify whether the right person is connected to the IIC, whereas a room, helmet, or sunglasses requires additional time-consuming access control mechanisms to verify an individual's identity and level of control within the Cyber Situation.

Further, survey any group of commanders, decision makers, or other military personnel if they enjoy carrying a beeper or "brick" at all times. Likely, few like to carry a piece of equipment. Now, imagine having to maintain a critical instrument that allows an individual to access the Cyber Situation, and thus control the US military forces. Clearly, this is not an enviable position, since the individual may misplace or lose the helmet or sunglasses, or worse yet, the enemy may steal or destroy it. These are unnecessary burdens.359

9. "Cyber Situation Components: Why the Implanted Microscopic Chip?"

The "ethical and public relations issues" related to "[i]mplanting 'things' in people" such as "microscopic chips" are addressed in Chapter 4 of the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

Implanting "things" in people raises ethical and public relations issues.112 While these concerns may be founded on today's thinking, in 2025 they may not be as alarming. We already are evolving toward technology implanting. For example, the military currently requires its members to receive mandatory injections of biological organisms (i.e., the flu shot). In the civilian world, people receive mechanical hearts and other organs. Society has come to accept most of these implants as a fact of life. By 2025 it is possible medical technology will have nerve chips that allow amputees to control artificial limbs or eye chips that allow the blind to see.113 The civilian populace will likely accept an implanted microscopic chips that allow military members to defend vital national interests. Further, the US military will continue to be a volunteer force that will freely accept the chip because it is a tool to control technology and not as a tool to control the human.360

10. Illustrative Instances of "Neuroengineering" and "Cyborgs"

The following instances of direct brain interaction with various aspects of external reality merely serve to illustrate the type of research that may relate to the "brain chip" technology noted the Air Force 2025 research paper, "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability."

a. "Emory Neuroscientists Use Computer Chip To Help Speech-Impaired Patients Communicate": Science Daily: Emory University Health Sciences Center: November 11, 1998

Emory University research reported in 1998 has shown that brain implants have been used to control computer signals.

Roy E. Bakay, M.D., a neurosurgeon at Emory University and neuroscience colleague Phillip R. Kennedy, M.D., have developed a neurotrophic electrode that can be placed in the brain to help these patients communicate through a computer...

The neurotrophic electrode is implanted into the motor cortex of the brain using a tiny glass encasing. Neurotrophic factors are implanted into the glass, and the cortical cells grow into the neurotrophic electrode and form contacts. It takes several weeks for the cortical tissue to grow into the electrode.

The neurons in the brain transmit an electronic signal when they "fire." Recording wires are placed inside the glass cone to pick up the neural signals from the ingrown brain tissue and transmit then through the skin to a receiver and amplifier outside of the scalp. The system is powered by an induction coil placed over the scalp. There are no wires going through the skin. Neural signals are used to drive the computer cursor in the same way a computer mouse is moved back and forth. The recorded neural signals are connected to the computer and are used as a substitute for the mouse cursor.

"Our present patient, who is at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, is paralyzed except for his face due to brainstem stroke following a heart attack, is dependent on a ventilator and cannot speak, yet he is fully alert and intelligent," Dr. Bakay said. "This patient, who was implanted five months ago with the electrode, can move the cursor from icon to icon in a horizontal direction. As each icon is encountered, a phrase is spoken by the computer. The patient's favorite is, "See you later. Nice talking with you"...

The neurotrophic electrode technology was developed and patented by Dr. Kennedy while at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Its testing and development in animals over the past 12 years has been a collaboration between Emory University and Georgia Tech. The research has been supported by the Emory/Georgia Tech Biomedical Research Consortium, the American Paralysis Association and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently awarded funding to continue the Phase I research in at least one more patient.361

b. "Scientists Create Robo-Fish Cyborg Using a Lamprey's Brain... No, Really": Small Times

Small Times Senior Writer Tom Henderson reports on the use of a fish brain to control a robot. A photo caption reads, "Above, the robot, running on lamprey power, takes aim at a light bulb."362

Dr. Ferdinando Mussa-Ivaldi and his fellow researchers at Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Genoa in Italy use the brain stem and part of the spinal cord of a lamprey to control a wheeled robot. It is research they hope will allow people to be fitted with prosthetics wired to a variety of small-tech sensors that are directly controlled by the brain...

"This will help us establish better communications between the brain and machines," says Mussa-Ivaldi...

This is high tech done on the cheap. Pointing to the light sensors, the computer, the motion-dampened table, the electrodes going in and out of the fish brain, Mussa-Ivaldi says: "These are all off-the-shelf components."

The components are also out of the toy box, and out of the fishing-tackle box...

The project was funded in its first three years by a grant from the Office of Naval Research. A second three-year Navy grant has just begun.

According to a spokesperson for the Office of Naval Research, the two grants for the lamprey project have totaled $660,000.

The office funded the project, said the spokesperson, "because it is in the forefront of technologies related to the development of intelligent robots. The research is an early step towards adaptive robotic systems of the future."

Mussa-Ivaldi didn't want to speculate on how long his research might take to result in real applications but says it is all part of the momentum that is building in related research. "The interest in this area, neuroengineering, is becoming very big.["]363

c. "Scientists Create Robo-Fish Cyborg Using a Lamprey's Brain ... No, Really": Cyborgs around the World: Small Times

Small Times Senior Writer Tom Henderson reports that, "Animal-machine cyborgs are becoming reality at research institutions around the world." Henderson then reports on four "noteworthy examples."

Researchers at Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology have collaborated to use neurons from leeches to solve simple addition problems, through an interaction with a PC.

Also at Atlanta's Emory University, Phillip Kennedy and Roy Bakay, both with the department of neurosurgery, have implanted electrodes into the motor cortex of patients who are "locked in" - that is, those suffering from Lou Gehrig's disease or severe stroke who are aware of their surroundings but no longer able to communicate. With cortex implants, patients have been able, through the power of thought, to control a cursor on a computer screen and, as a result of a corresponding computer program, produce audible sounds.

This summer, Kevin Warwick, a professor who heads up the Cybernetics Department at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom, plans to implant a silicon chip in his own body, which will interact with his brain. Surgeons will connect the chip to nerve fibers in his left arm, and the chip is supposed to exchange signals between his brain and a computer. It is hoped that as Warwick makes various motions, the computer will eventually be able to replicate the signals to his arm, too, and control motion when asked to.

Miguel Nicolelis, a bioneurologist at Duke University, published an article in Nature last November detailing his work on owl monkeys that operate a robot arm using only their brain signals. Eventually, he theorizes, amputees could use what he calls a hybrid brain-machine interface to control artificial arms or legs, or those paralyzed by spinal-cord injuries could transmit signals back and forth between body parts and brain. "The brain is still the best computer around," says Mussa-Ivaldi. "The more we understand it, the better we can emulate it in an artificial situation."364

B. Sunday Times: Human Microchips Implants: Kidnapping: Pros and Cons: October 11, 1998

The Sunday Times of London, in 1998, reported the pros and cons of implanting microchips in humans to thwart kidnapping.

A microchip under the skin that can help to locate hostages is being marketed to combat one of the world's biggest growth industries—there were a record 1,407 abductions for ransom worldwide last year, up 60% since 1990...

The Sky-Eye is seen as an alternative to surrounding the children of the rich and famous with teams of burly bodyguards...

Others are more cynical about the microchip, however. Robert Davies, a special risks underwriter for Hiscox, an insurance group that holds 5,000 kidnap policies, said it might work in Britain or the United States but could prove hazardous in less developed countries, where victims were likely to be shot in rescue attempts and the police were sometimes in league with the kidnappers.

Others are more cynical about the microchip, however. Robert Davies, a special risks underwriter for Hiscox, an insurance group that holds 5,000 kidnap policies, said it might work in Britain or the United States but could prove hazardous in less developed countries, where victims were likely to be shot in rescue attempts and the police were sometimes in league with the kidnappers.

"We are aware that kidnap gangs in Mexico, the most sophisticated in the world, are searching victims for scars that might hide such devices..." Terry Waite, who was a hostage in Beirut for 5 1/2 years, said: "It is very dangerous because once kidnappers get to know about these things they will skin you alive to find them. There were rumours when I was kidnapped that I had been planted with locator devices.

"I was given rigorous searches, my clothes were changed and I even had my teeth checked."365

C. Professor Kevin Warwick, United Kingdom Scientist, Implanted with a Microchip in 1998: Evaluative Aspects

1. BBC News: UK Scientist Implanted with Chip States Positive and Negative Sides: August 25, 1998

BBC News reported that a UK scientist who received an implanted chip stated the positive and negative sides of such a development.

A silicon chip has been successfully implanted into the arm of a UK scientist...

[Professor Kevin Warwick], from the University of Reading, in England, is taking part in the experiment to highlight some of the dangers of the technology...

But he says the real reason for having the chip inserted was to demonstrate the sinister side of the pushing the frontiers of technology forward.

"There are positive sides and negative sides - positive in helping people around big building, negative are the...big brother issues - machines or computers controlling humans," he said.

He says that if their use became widespread we would never enjoy any privacy and could be followed and identified wherever we went.366

2. Range of Reactions to Implant: computerworld.com: January 11, 1999

There was a range of reaction to microchip implantation of Professor Kevin Warwick, director of cybernetics at the University of Reading in the U.K.

Though the experiment sounds like an episode of Dr. Who, real-world implications are "right around the corner," says Warwick, who foresees enormous medical applications. Through a system of embedded chips interfacing with an artificial motor system, Warwick imagines paraplegics walking...

Not everybody is as avid, of course. In a world in which cloning already is a reality, the microprocessor implant gives rise to more staggering ethical questions...

Reactions to the experiment have ranged from enthusiasm to fear to disbelief...

Warwick has received outraged E-mail from what he calls "the very strong end of the Charlton Heston lobby" at suggestions made by radio pundits that gun owners be embedded to prevent anyone else from using their firearms. Articles and talk shows from London to Des Moines to Oslo have buzzed with ethical hesitation from people of all manner of political and religious beliefs.

Not everybody shares this hesitation. In addition to encouragement from his scientific colleagues, various envoys from the chip industry have been in touch. "The latest count is 23," Warwick says, including "one particular company, a very large one, not too far from where you're sitting."

The reporter was sitting in San Francisco. Warwick declined to be more specific. An Intel Corp. spokeswoman wouldn't verify any contact with Warwick.

The implant experiment has brought millions of dollars in corporate research money to the cybernetics department at the University of Reading. Part of Warwick's motivation may have been to attract more financial assistance to the school.

But mostly, the professor seems motivated by good, old-fashioned scientific curiosity...367

D. Peter Zhou, Applied Digital Solutions, Digital Angel: "Inventors are not responsible for evil use of their technology...You cannot blame Einstein for the atom bomb.": Business2.0: December 2000

An article entitled, "Digital Angel Is Watching You," includes reflections on human implant chips. The article was introduced with a two-sentence overview: "Bio-digital implants that monitor and broadcast your every move could save your life in an emergency. Or destroy your last vestige of privacy."

The force behind Digital Angel is Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), an Internet telephony company in Palm Beach, Fla. In late 1999 ADS paid Massachusetts inventor Paul Gargano for the patent rights to a "personal tracking and recovery system." The patent described the combination of GPS and wireless, but lacked a biosensor. ADS set up Digital Angel.net as a wholly owned subsidiary in Hauppauge, N.Y., and within a month hired engineer Peter Zhou to oversee the research. In late October, DigitalAngel.net was set to unveil a prototype and hoping to attract press attention and investors...

In an age when people are increasingly sensitive to issues surrounding surveillance, privacy, and data security, a technology that gathers deeply personal information and knows where people are is not going to get a free ride.

ADS already knows this. "It has the ability to be perceived as an invasion-of-privacy, Big Brother technology that, if not handled properly, could lead to abuses," [Bob] Jackson[, director of investor relations for ADS] says. If ADS one day decides to offer implantation of Digital Angel, the company would set up an oversight board to monitor deployment because of the ethical issues sure to be raised by such a move, he says.

"I can see someone who's 90 years old and has a bad heart," says Deborah Pierce, a staff attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation. "You want to know where they are and save their life." But Pierce worries about whom besides the doctors would be privy to this personal information. "If law enforcement comes knocking on the door with a warrant, even a civil subpoena, then you are going to have to turn that over," she says...

Zhou is candid and good-humored in interviews, and is not shy about discussing the ethical implications of his research. "If I can, I will make it hard to use Digital Angel for anything other than to save life," he says. But Zhou is not sure how far his responsibility extends. "Inventors are not responsible for evil use of their technology. What other people do I cannot control," Zhou says. "You cannot blame Einstein for the atom bomb."368

E. Limited Discussion: HighGrader Magazine: May-June 2001

An article entitled, "Dark Angels: New Micro-chip Technology for Pets, Children and You," comments on the narrow range of discussion on microchip implants.

What is becoming clearer and clearer with the wireless revolution is that notions of privacy are being quickly outdated. And the only ones who seem to be really freaked out are the doomsday 'Mark of the Beast' folks. I've been checking out their websites - besides the numerology and end times ranting there's actually a lot of stuff about globalization and the onset of some disturbing technologies.

Chris Gray is one person who is concerned that the discussion has been relegated to the fringe.

"Well, there are a lot of people who are concerned about this technology, but the only real discourse on these issues is occurring either in the political extremes or in academia," says Gray, a Cyborgologist (the study of the interface between humans and machines) from the University of Great Falls in Montana.369

F. Pilots Could Be Chipped; Violent Criminals and Terrorists Should Be Chipped; Microchips Could Track Foreigners: "They Want Their ID Chips Now," Wired News: February 6, 2002

A February 6, 2002 Wired News article entitled, "They Want Their ID Chips Now," included evaluative comments after first reporting that the Jacobs family "could become the first family in the world to be implanted with microchips..."

The chip in question, the VeriChip, is similar to the biochips that have been used to identify pets and livestock for years.

Made by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), the VeriChip stores six lines of text and is slightly larger than a grain of rice. It emits a 125-kHz radio frequency signal that can be picked up by a special scanner up to four feet away...

(Currently the chip is immutable once the device is injected via a syringe, using local anesthetic. In future applications, the chip may include a GPS receiver and other advanced features, company officials said.)...

The idea of requiring people to be implanted was brought up by Applied Digital Solutions CEO Richard Sullivan in an interview with the Palm Beach Post, in which he suggested microchips be used to track foreigners visiting the United States. (The company has since downplayed his comments.)

But an X-Files-type scheme where everyone is forcibly marked and monitored by the government worries both civil libertarians and Christians, who believe new technologies such as biometrics and biochips may be the feared "Mark of the Beast" of Biblical lore that is described in Revelations 13:16:

"He also forced everyone, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of his name."

Gary Wohlscheid, the president of The Last Day Ministries -- a group espousing the belief that humanity is on the verge of an apocalyptic showdown between the forces of good and evil -- believes the VeriChip could be this mark. Although the chip is not yet small enough to be injected into the forehead or right hand at the moment, it could be in the future, he said.

"Out of all the technologies with potential to be the mark of the beast, the VeriChip has got the best possibility right now," he said. "It's definitely not the final product, but it's a step toward it. Within three to four years, people will be required to use it. Those that reject it will be put to death."

Wohlscheid felt so strongly about this possibility that he created a Web page to warn others of the microchip's evil potential.

To quell Christians' fears, [Keith] Bolton [senior vice president of technology development], the Jacobses and a theologian recently appeared on the 700 Club, hosted by televangelist Pat Robertson.370

G. CBS News Correspondent Andy Rooney: February 10, 2002

CBS News Correspondent Andy Rooney in a February 10, 2002 weekly commentary, entitled, "Finding The Bad Guys," gives positive consideration to "something planted permanently" in his arm that would identify him.

We need some system for permanently identifying safe people. Most of us are never going to blow anything up and there's got to be something better than one of these photo IDs - a tattoo somewhere maybe.

The Saudis used an American devi[c]e to scan the eyes of travelers. I wouldn't mind having something planted permanently in my arm that would identify me.371

H. Associated Press: Three Options: Governmental Tracking, Biblical Apocalypse, or Evolution of Man and Technology: February 12, 2002

An Associated Press article on The Miami Herald Web site reported three options for microchips implanted in humans: governmental tracking, Biblical apocalypse, or evolution of man and technology.

A family in Boca Raton have volunteered to be implanted with microchips, which would make them the first family imbedded with the identification devices.

Derek Jacobs, a 14-year-old computer whiz, is poised to become the first child to receive the implant, which can be scanned for identification and medical information...

Only two adults have been implanted with the microchip, one in Europe and a doctor working for Applied Digital Solutions, the Palm Beach company that makes the microchip, called a VeriChip.

The microchips have been criticized both as governmental attempts to track citizens and as Biblical signs of the apocalypse[.]

But Derek doesn't share those views.

"I see it as more of an evolution of man and technology," he said.372

I. Function Creep: Electronic Frontier Foundation: Associated Press: February 26, 2002

A senior attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation considers privacy concerns in light of the fact that the use of any given technology may change over time.

For airports, nuclear power plants and other high security facilities, the immediate benefits could be a closer-to-foolproof security system. But privacy advocates warn the chip could lead to encroachments on civil liberties.

The implant technology is another case of science fiction evolving into fact. Those who have long advanced the idea of implant chips say it could someday mean no more easy-to-counterfeit ID cards nor dozing security guards.

Just a computer chip-about the size of a grain of rice-that would be difficult to remove and tough to mimic.

Other uses of the technology on the horizon, from an added device that would allow satellite tracking of an individual's every movement to the storage of sensitive data like medical records, are already attracting interest across the globe for tasks like foiling kidnappings or assisting paramedics.

Applied Digital Solutions' new "VeriChip" is another sign that Sept. 11 has catapulted the science of security into a realm with uncharted possibilities—and also new fears for privacy.

The problem is that you always have to think about what the device will be used for tomorrow," said Lee Tien, a senior attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy advocacy group.

"It's what we call function creep. At first a device is used for applications we all agree are good but then it slowly is used for more than it was intended," he said.373

J. Line in the Sand: VeriChip Always Voluntary: Applied Digital Solutions' Chief Technology Officer; Function Creep: Electronic Frontier Foundation's Senior Attorney: World Magazine: March 9, 2002

World's Chris Stamper contrasts Applied Digital Solution's Keith Bolton's "line in the sand" with Electronic Frontier Foundation's Lee Tien's "function creep."

A Florida company wants to market perhaps the most controversial security measure ever devised: a computer ID chip that can be embedded under someone's skin. Privacy advocates object, but the idea's backers say it provides almost foolproof protection for airports, nuclear facilities, and other strategic sites.

Applied Digital Solutions' new VeriChip is about the size of a grain of rice, hard to remove, and difficult to counterfeit...

"The line in the sand that we draw is that the use of the VeriChip would always be voluntary," said Keith Bolton, Applied Digital's chief technology officer. "We would never provide it to a company that intended to coerce people to use it."

The privacy issues raised by VeriChip won't die easily. Lee Tien, a senior attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, complained that unscrupulous people could begin using it for dangerous purposes. "It's what we call function creep," he said. "At first a device is used for applications we all agree are good but then it slowly is used for more than it was intended."374

K. Steven Keating, Executive Director of the Privacy Foundation: "It Can Become Commercially Coercive": Miami Herald: March 10, 2002

Steven Keating, executive director of the Privacy Foundation reflects on the possibility of government ever requiring "a technology like this on a segment of its population" and ways in which the use of chips can become "commercially coercive."

Even famous curmudgeon Andy Rooney is pro-chip...

"I wouldn't mind having something planted permanently in my arm that would identify me."

But not everyone will want to become a human bar code.

"If a government ever requires a technology like this on a segment of its population, then I think it's going to be very provocative," said Stephen Keating, executive director of the Denver-based Privacy Foundation.

For example, airlines could encourage demand for chips by allowing people with implants to get faster security clearance. "It can become commercially coercive," Keating said.375

L. Chipped Family: Time Magazine: March 11, 2002

A March 11, 2002 Time article that previewed the chipping of the Jacobs family that took place on May 10, 2002, touches briefly on a critique of human microchip implanting.

There are plenty of skeptics, but Jeffrey Jacobs is not one of them. "People have been worried about Big Brother for years," he says. "The three of us want to be part of not just this new technology but an evolution of humanity"...

The FDA is expected to approve the Jacobses' implants within two months, and there are other ways to speed up the evolution. Two weeks ago, Applied Digital Solutions signed a deal to distribute VeriChips in Brazil, where kidnapping has become epidemic, especially among the rich and powerful. Government officials hope that VeriChips implanted in people considered at high risk could be used to track victims via satellite. "Here [in the U.S.] we're still dealing with FDA and privacy and civil-liberties issues," says [Keith] Bolton [vice president of Applied Digital Solutions, the company behind VeriChip]. But we're not stopping. We're going into South America right now!"376

M. Steven Aftergood, Senior Research Analyst at the Federation of American Scientists: "Technology Has Outpaced the Policy Process": Time Magazine: March 11, 2002

In a March 11, 2002 Time article entitled "Meet the Chipsons," Steven Aftergood, a senior research analyst at the Federation of American Scientists, indicates that "There's a feeling that technology has outpaced the policy process."

Security is part of the VeriChip business plan…[Dr. Richard] Seelig[, Applied Digital Solutions…medical-applications director] believes [an implantable computer device…with a microchip containing a few kilobytes of silicon memory and a tiny radio transmitter called ]VeriChip could function as a theft-proof, counterfeit-proof ID, like having a driver's license embedded under your skin. He suggests that airline crews could wear one to ensure that terrorists don't infiltrate the cockpit in disguise. "I travel quite a bit," he says, "and I want to make sure the pilots in that plane belong there."

Could the airlines or government really require pilots to get chipped? "I think we have a right to demand that," says Seelig. "Our lives are in their hands." It sounds extreme, but there are precedents. In the early '90s several states considered laws that would have required female child abusers and women on welfare to wear birth-control implants. The proposals were not very popular. "There's a feeling that technology has outpaced the policy process," says Steven Aftergood, a research analyst at the Federation of American Scientists. "We aren't in a position to apply these new devices with the wisdom and prudence that is needed."377

N. Civil Libertarians and Religious Advocates: Associated Press: AOL News: April 1, 2002

An Associated Press article published on AOL News notes the debate occasioned by human microchip implants.

The VeriChip, made by Applied Digital Solutions in Palm Beach County, is about the size of a grain of rice. It would be injected under a person's skin, probably in the arm, and could be read only by scanners.

Similar technology has been used in the past few years on millions of dogs and cats as a way to identify the pets if they are lost or stolen...

Ultimately, the chips could be coupled with global-positioning satellites to locate Alzheimer's patients who have wandered off, or find kidnapping victims - an idea the company hopes to market in Latin America.

The chip could also be used as a security tool...

The chip has stirred debate over its potential use as a "Big Brother" device to track people or invade the privacy of their homes or workplaces. Civil libertarians call it crypto-fascism or high-tech slavery. Religious advocates say it represents "the mark of the Beast," or the anti-Christ.378

O. "Big Brother"—"Invaluable in Emergency Situations": Associated Press on washingtonpost.com: April 5, 2002

Contrasting views are briefly noted in an April 5, 2002 Associated Press article:

For now, the VeriChip will bear only an identification number, said David Hughes of Technology Sourcing International, a consulting firm helping Applied Digital in its discussions with the FDA. But that ID code could be cross-referenced with a database to detail any kind of information.

The company said production would begin immediately.

VeriChip emits a radio signal and has been derided by some for its "Big Brother" implications. Applied Digital has said it could prove invaluable in emergency situations when someone is either unconscious or cannot otherwise give information.379

P. Privacy Advocates and Some Religious Sects: Newsfactor: April 5, 2002

A NewsFactor Network article, entitled, "Implantable Spy Chip Gets Green Light from U.S.," reported that, "A Florida company Thursday said that it will begin marketing and selling a microchip that can be implanted under the skin… FDA officials said that as long as the biochip is used for identification purposes only, it will not have to meet strict FDA guidelines." In a concluding "Mark of the Beast" section, the article reports evaluative comments.

The VeriChip is not without controversy. It has been challenged by privacy and political advocates, who say that if the chip were to fall into the wrong hands, totalitarian regimes could use it to track political dissidents.

The technology also could be used as a tool in a national ID system -- an idea that has waned in popularity since peaking right after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

A March survey by Gartner Dataquest showed that 41 percent of those surveyed in the United States oppose a national ID system, while just 26 percent support one.

Also, some religious sects have said the biochip is the "Mark of the Beast" from the Book of Revelations. They claim that a graphic the company used early in the product's life cycle "clearly" resembled the satanic numbers "666."380

Q. Members of Medical Community Evaluate ID Chip: Palm Beach Post Staff Writer: Friday, May 10, 2002

Members of the medical community interviewed in a May 10, 2002 article by Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Deborah Circelli comment on ID chips.

Not surprisingly, the ID chip has gotten mixed reviews in the medical community. Some area doctors say the VeriChip could be helpful, but only if it becomes a standard practice nationally.

But others in the medical community who specialize in the treatment of Alzheimer's are skeptical. They point to the national ID bracelet program, claiming it is more proven, humane and accepted by hospitals and law enforcement.

"My dog has one on the back of his neck, but I don't think it's appropriate for people," said Mary Barnes, executive director of Alzheimer's Community Care, a nonprofit group that operates seven daycare centers in Palm Beach and Martin counties."381

R. Privacy Implications of "A Radio Chip in Every Consumer Product": nytimes.com: February 25, 2003

Claudia H. Deutsch and Barnaby J. Feder report in The New York Times about the privacy implications of putting radio-frequency identification chips in consumer products.

Consumer privacy is also an issue. It would be easy to combine credit card data with information from the retail chips to know who bought what, and when — and, conceivably, track the product even after it left the store.

"I don't think the average consumer understands the threat to personal privacy that these kinds of technologies can present," said Alan N. Sutin, a partner specializing in information technology at the law firm of Greenberg Traurig.

William H. Steele, a consumer products analyst with Bank of America, doubts companies will "succumb to the temptation to keep tracking products in the consumers' hands," but he, too, stops short of calling the issue specious. "There should be a certain level of skepticism on the part of the U.S. consumer," he said.382

S. Surgically Implanted IDs: "Orwellian" or "Social Security Numbers of the Future": The Boston Globe: May 20, 2003

Boston Globe Correspondent Angela Swafford ("the first journalist—to get 'chipped' ") presented contrasting views regarding surgically implanted IDs.

In my case, the tiny chip inside me can transmit personal information to anyone with a special handheld scanner.

Theoretically, this VeriChip will allow doctors to call up my medical records even if I'm too badly hurt to answer questions. It is also supposed to allow me to get money from an automatic teller machine by flashing my arm instead of punching in my PIN number. Or reassure airport security that I am a journalist, not a terrorist.

And, though the VeriChip strikes critics as Orwellian, its makers think the surgically implanted IDs could be the Social Security numbers of the future in a nervous world.

"I believe the day will come when most of us will have something similar to the VeriChip under our skin," said Scott Silverman, president of Florida-based Applied Digital Solutions. "People will regard that its benefits—in terms of financial, security, and health care—far outweigh the possibility of loss of privacy"...

But critics see surveillance technology like the VeriChip as a growing threat, giving potentially dangerous new power to businesses and government alike. In a report issued in January by the American Civil Liberties Union, Jay Stanley and Barry Steinhardt warned that an explosion of technology has already created a "surveillance monster."

"Scarcely a month goes by in which we don't read about some new high-tech way to invade people's privacy, from face recognition to implantable microchips, data mining, DNA chips, and even 'brain wave fingerprinting,' " they wrote. "The fact is there are no longer any technical barriers to the Big Brother regime portrayed by George Orwell [in his novel '1984']." The VeriChip is similar to the more than 25 million chips already embedded in animals all over the world acting as "pet passports," allowing customs officials to monitor those animals that do not need to go into quarantine, or to identify your stray dog...

As far as I am concerned, having a chip with a code in it is not giving me the chills. I think it would be nice to use it to get cash or pay for gas, and I wouldn't mind paramedics having access to my health records in the blink of an eye. Besides, I know it would never get lost.






351LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 4, System Description;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; <http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-4.htm - v3c2-4>; p. 4 of 2/27/03 9:59 AM printout.
352LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Disclaimer;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-1.htm; pp. 1-2 of 2/27/03 9:57 AM printout.
353LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Executive Summary;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-1.htm - Introduction; pp. 1-2 of 2/27/03 9:57 AM printout.
354LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 4, System Description;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-4.htm - v3c2-4; pp. 3-4 of 2/27/03 9:59 AM printout.
355LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 3, Technology Investigation;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-3.htm - v3c2-3; pp. 10-11 of 2/27/03 9:58 AM printout.
356LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 3, Technology Investigation;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-3.htm - v3c2-3; p. 11 of 2/27/03 9:58 AM printout.
357LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 3, Technology Investigation;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-3.htm - v3c2-3; p. 13 of 2/27/03 9:58 AM printout.
358LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 8, Conclusion;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-6.htm - v3c2-6; p. 6 of 2/27/03 9:59 AM printout.
359LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 4, System Description;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-4.htm - v3c2-4; p. 4 of 2/27/03 9:59 AM printout.
360LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand, Maj YuLin G. Whitehead; "Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability: Chapter 4, System Description;" Air Force 2025; published August 1996; http://fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c2-4.htm - v3c2-4; p. 4 of 2/27/03 9:59 AM printout.
361"Emory Neuroscientists Use Computer Chip To Help Speech-Impaired Patients Communicate;" Emory University Health Sciences Center news release adapted for story in Science Daily; published November 11, 1998; http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/11/981111080706.htm; pp. 1-2 of 4/15/03 3:33 PM printout.
362Tom Henderson; "Scientists Create Robo-Fish Cyborg Using a Lamprey's Brain … No, Really;" Small Times; copyright 2002; http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=1489; p. 1 of 4/15/03 3:39 PM printout.
363Tom Henderson; "Scientists Create Robo-Fish Cyborg Using a Lamprey's Brain … No, Really;" Small Times; copyright 2002; http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=1489; pp. 1-3 of 4/15/03 3:39 PM printout.
364Tom Henderson; "Scientists Create Robo-Fish Cyborg Using a Lamprey's Brain … No, Really;" Small Times; copyright 2002; http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=1489; pp. 3-4 of 4/15/03 3:39 PM printout.
365Maurice Chittenden and David Lloyd, "007 Implant to Protect Kidnap Targets," Sunday Times (London), 11 October 1998, sec. 1, p. 13.
366"Technology Gets Under the Skin;" BBC News: Sci/Tech; published August 25, 1998 at 1054 GMT 11:54 UK; <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/158007.stm>; pp. 1-3 of 1/20/03 3:23 AM printout. This item was located initially via http://www.raidersnewsupdate.com/bbc.html; pp. 1-2 of 4/24/02 8:57 AM printout..
367Sam Witt; "Professor Warwick Chips In;" published January 11, 1999; http://www.computerworld.com/news/1999/story/0,11280,33499,00.html; p. 2 of 3/5/03 4:35 PM printout.
368Rick Overton; "Digital Angel Is Watching You;" Business2.0; published December 2000; <http://www.business2.com/articles/mag/print/0,1643,14362,00.html>; pp. 1-2 of 4/25/02 9:43 AM printout.
369Brit Griffin; "Dark Angels: New Micro-chip Technology for Pets, Children and You;" HighGrader Magazine; published May-June 2001; http://www.grievousangels.com/highgrader/2001/angel.html; p. 6 of 1/14/02 9:06 AM printout.
370Julia Scheeres; "They Want Their ID Chips Now;" Wired News; published February 6, 2002; http://www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,50187,00.html; pp. 1-2 of 3/9/02 3:19 PM printout.
371Andy Rooney, CBS News Correspondent; CBS News, New York; published February 10, 2002; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/02/08/60minutes/rooney/printable328752.shtml; p. 1 of 4/17/02 3:38 PM printout.
372"Boca Raton Family Volunteers To Be First for Microchip Implants;" Associated Press article on The Miami Herald Web site; posted on February 12, 2002; http://www.miami.com/mld/miami/news/2654727.html; p. 1 of 3/1/03 8:40 AM printout.
373Christopher Newton, Associated Press Writer; "U.S. to Weigh Computer Chip Implant;" Associated Press article on washingtonpost.com; published February 26, 2002 7:55 PM; <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A7240-2002Feb26?language=printer>; p. 1 of 2/28/02 7:49 AM printout.
374Chris Stamper, "Technology: New…But Improved?: Under My Skin," World, March 9, 2002, p. 42.
375Shannon Tan; "An ID Idea: Microchips Under Your Skin;" Miami Herald; published March 10, 2002; http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/2828025.htm; p. 2 of 1/21/03 10:55 AM printout.
376Lev Grossman, "Meet the Chipsons," Time, March 11, 2002, pp. 56-57.
377Lev Grossman, "Meet the Chipsons," Time, March 11, 2002, p. 57.
378Adrian Sainz; "Family Wants Data Chips Implanted;" Associated Press: AOL News; published April 1, 2002 2241 EST; pp. 1-2 of 4/2/02 printout.
379"Company to Sell Implantable Chip;" Associated Press on washingtonpost.com; published April 5, 2002 12:41 PM; <http://www.washintonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A61845-2002Apr4?language=printer>; p. 1 of 4/5/02 printout 11:17 PM.
380Tim McDonald; "Implantable Spy Chip Gets Green Light from U.S.;" NewsFactor Network; published April 5, 2002; http://sci.newsfactor.com/perl/printer/17127/; pp. 1-2 of 4/19/02 11:09 AM printout.
381Deborah Circelli; "ID Chip to Track Man's Whereabouts;" News: PalmBeachPost.com; published May 10, 2002; <http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/friday/news_c3bd443b30d700aa00be.html>; p. 2 of 5/10/02 8:04 AM printout.
382Claudia H. Deutsch and Barnaby J. Feder; "A Radio Chip in Every Consumer Product;" nytimes.com; published February 25, 2003; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/25/technology/25THEF.html?pagewanted=print&position=top; p. 2 of 2/25/03 2:40 PM printout.
383Angela Swafford; "Chipping Away at Security Fears"; Boston Globe, p. C9, section: Health Science; published May 20, 2003; <http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=BG&p_theme=bg&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_text_search-0=VeriChip&s_dispstring=VeriChip%20AND%20date(last%2030%20days)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=-30qzD&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no>; pp. 1-2, 4 of 5/22/03 3:03 PM printout.





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