Charagma Watch (July 22, 2003)
An Annotated Update of
"Evaluation of the Church in the U.S.A." (1982, 1983)
by John and Sylvia Ronsvalle, empty tomb, inc., Champaign, IL


XXVIII. Human Microchip Implants: Omnipresent, Ubiquitous RFID Readers

Posted: February 20, 2004

Human microchip implants are candidates for the Biblical mark of the beast technology. With regard to human microchip implants, the main significance of radio frequency identification (RFID) chips or tags is that the spread of RFID tags in consumer goods will mean an accompanying spread of RFID readers. These RFID readers then would then provide the infrastructure to provide ubiquitous readers of human RFID microchip implants.

A. Widespread Presence of Readers Required for Human Microchip Implant System.

Any widespread, human microchip implant-based electronic identification system used for identification, in general—or buying and selling, specifically—would require an extensive, if not universal, presence of microchip readers.

B. Pet Chipping Business Model Based on Free Distribution of Readers

The business model for pets was based on the free distribution of scanners to veterinarians and animal shelters.

C. Human Microchip Implant Business Model Initially Based on Widespread Distribution of Readers via Medical Community

The business model for chipping people was similar to that for pets, which was based on the widespread free distribution of scanners to veterinarians and animal shelters.

1. Business Model Based on Widespread Distribution of Scanners: The Register: June 10, 2002

The people business model is based, according to Applied Digital, on Digital Angel's HomeAgain animal identification system. Vets and animal shelters were given free scanners, and there you go, some kind of critical mass brewing. It's also significant that three of the company's execs have been chipped, not because they have any ailments (not disclosed ones, anyway), but because they wanted "to demonstrate to the world our complete confidence in the success of this exciting, life-enhancing technology."

So although vertical markets are being targeted initially, really they want people to accept it as natural on the basis that's it's entirely positive, and everybody should have it done. The security potential is substantial, and the privacy issues come clanking along behind.422

2. Goal Is for 90 Percent of U.S. Hospitals, Clinics and Paramedics to Have Scanners: Palm Beach Post Staff Writer: Friday, May 10, 2002

A May 10, 2002 article by Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Deborah Circelli reported on plans for human microchip implant chip scanners to be available nationwide.

The VeriChip process also is similar to one started by St. Paul, Minn.-based Destron Fearing Inc., which was bought by Applied Digital in 2000.

The company is hoping Destron's expertise and experience implanting ID chips in more than 10 million pets throughout the country will be helpful with the VeriChip.

To help bolster the VeriChip's appeal, Applied Digital is distributing the $1,200 scanners free to hospitals in Palm Beach and Broward counties...

In two to three years, however, the company's [Applied Digital Solutions] goal is for 90 percent of U.S. hospitals, clinics and paramedics to have the scanners. The company hopes one day it will become routine for all hospitals to scan patients who come into emergency rooms unable to speak, or having Alzheimer's.

About 4,000 people worldwide have registered with the company to be implanted with the VeriChip, [President Scott] Silverman said423

D. Human Microchip Implant Business Model Based on Distribution of Readers via Medical Community May Be Affected by FDA Warning

A November 2002 FDA warning not to market the VeriChip "with claims of medical utility" would, at that time, on the face of it, seem to have an influence on any plans to build a market for human microchip implants based on the nationwide distribution of human microchip scanners via the medical community.

E. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Reader System Conceptualized in Number of Ways

RFID systems that are being designed to provide universal microchip readers have been conceptualized and named in a variety of ways.

1. Wireless IDs424

2. Internet of Things425

3. A Network of Trillions of Things426

4. Silent Commerce427

5. Reality Online428

6. A Virtual Double of the Real World429

7. Universal Commerce; U-Commerce430

8. Ubiquitous RFID; Ubiquitous ID; Ubiquitous Computing431

9. Radar for Everyday Products432

10. Track-and-Trace433

11. Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)434

12. The Next Computer Revolution435

13. A New Global Infrastructure—A Layer on Top of The Internet436

F. Historical Note: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) First Developed in World War II: Reuters: April 8, 2003

A Reuters article reported that Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) was first developed in World War II.

First developed in World War II as a way to help radar operators distinguish between friendly and enemy aircraft, RFID tags are already used to track cattle, identify lost pets, and enable commuters to drive through tollbooths without pausing.437

G. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Readers: RFID Readers May Become Omnipresent to Read both RFID Tagged Items in Retail Outlets, and Potentially, RFID Human Microchip Implants

Scanners that read RFID microchips may become omnipresent in stores if RFID tagged items are introduced in retail establishments on a broadscale basis. Following are indications of the spread of RFID readers and RFID tagged items. Presumably, omnipresent, ubiquitous RFID readers will be able to read non-contact RFID smart cards, and passive or active RFID human microchip implants.

1. An RFID Test, a Planned RFID Rollout, and RFID Use in Books: InformationWeek: June 18, 2001

Cheryl Rosen, writing in InformationWeek covered an RFID experiment in Tulsa, Okla., "one of the first major commercial rollouts of RFID technology," and "a market for RFID in more than 30 libraries and universities."

Tulsa, Okla., is the site of this summer's most innovative experiment in inventory management. A group of retailers, manufacturers, and vendors-dubbed the Auto-ID Center-is wiring the entire city with analog radio-frequency gear that can track packages equipped with microchips.

The system will make it possible to track inventory as it moves from point to point across the city. "We're putting RFID [radio-frequency identification] chips on everything that moves," says John Balboni, VP of E-business at International Paper Co. in Stamford, Conn...

Eventually, the wireless IDs are likely to replace many bar-code applications, in which retailers and manufacturers continue to invest...

...San Francisco International Airport...next month will begin one of the first major commercial rollouts of RFID technology. Its new baggage-tracking system will use a high-frequency system from SCS Corp. that includes a chip and microwave antenna on an adhesive-backed strip...

...When a receiver finds an RFID-tagged bag, it triggers levers to automatically direct the bag to a security area...

[Mark] Denari[, the airport's operations security coordinator,] says the airport will begin passing along the cost of the devices to the airlines. Eventually, he sees the airport generating revenue by offering RFID tracking of all luggage as an outsourced service.

Checkpoint Systems Inc., a supplier of security tags and radio-frequency devices, has...also found a market for RFID in more than 30 libraries and universities. Last week, the University of Connecticut announced that it's putting tags on every book. Rockefeller University's library in New York has added them to 112,000 books and journals...438

2. "A Radar for Everyday Products": Newsweek: March 18, 2002

Scott Kirsner, a technology columnist for The Boston Globe writing in Newsweek, provided an overview of RFID as of the March 18, 2992 issue of Newsweek.

[Kevin] Ashton is a Procter & Gamble brand manager on loan to MIT, where he serves as director of the Auto-ID Center. His mission: to reinvent the quarter-century-old bar code used at checkout counters everywhere...

The next-generation technology that Ashton's group is developing, a cheap microchip affixed to the container, would tell all... Ashton refers to it as "radar for everyday products"...

With inexpensive electronic tags embedded in products and a network of wirelessly linked tag readers tracking those products, store managers would have a real-time tally of the products on their shelves...

One promising sign: the Uniform Code Council—keeper of the bar code—has endorsed the Auto-ID Center's efforts, and Ashton says the group is on track to have its technological specifications finished and released by October 2003.439

3. "The Internet of Things": Forbes.com: March 18, 2002

Forbes wrote about radio frequency ID chips in March 2002.

Much as the humble bar code helped companies understand what they were selling, these new tags, which bear a unique number known as an electronic product code, will let businesses track what customers are buying...

And once these radio-frequency ID chips are ubiquitous, more advanced uses are expected to emerge, making retailers omniscient about every product moving through the supply chain...

Much of this new work is under way at the two-year-old AutoID Center at MIT, which has $9 million in research funding from a consortium of big companies and government agencies, including Pepsi, Johnson & Johnson, UPS and the Department of Defense. Kevin Ashton, the Procter & Gamble exec who heads the center, foresees RFID leading to complete automation of data collection. "We need an 'Internet-for-things', a standardized way for computers to understand the real world," says Ashton.

Radio chips have long been used to tag livestock and are immensely successful in highway toll-gathering schemes. ExxonMobil's SpeedPass wireless payment system allows drivers to pay by waving a key-chain fob next to the pump. It has already enlisted 6 million drivers...

The Gap, in conjunction with tagmaker Texas Instruments, recently tagged a suburban Atlanta store. It tracked jeans from the distribution center to the store shelves, which had embedded readers. Scanning at 50 tags per second allowed store personnel to get a computer snapshot of where every pair of boot-cut women's indigo jeans was located.

McDonald's is also trying out the tags. In Boise, Idaho 31 restaurants give out chip-embedded key chains carrying stored-value payment information, which is linked to a customer's credit card or checking account. The tags, from Wayne, Pa. startup FreedomPay, rack up rewards such as free sodas.

"You walk up, place your order, wave the wand, and in two seconds it's authorized and approved," says David Rosal, a strategy director for McDonald's, which is also testing ExxonMobil's SpeedPass in 450 Chicago restaurants...

Privacy advocates are also quaking over the possibility that anyone with a radio-frequency reader, including the government, could find out where a passerby had purchased his shoes. It would be easy for Wal-Mart, say, to use its in-store readers to figure out which competitors its customers frequented. Even scarier, some credit-card issuers are considering implanting radio tags into their plastic cards.

"It's quite serious," cautions Tien, a lawyer with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a San Francisco watchdog group. "Once you go down that road, one has to consider the possibility that while Wal-Mart and Kmart might not share that information with each other, there will be times when that information will be demanded by the government for purposes of investigation."

It's a long way since the first bar-coded item, a ten-pack of Wrigley's gum, was scanned in 1974. Ten years from now that package may well have a chip inside.440

4. Tags Will Be on Everything: USA Today: April 11, 2002

Kevin Maney, writing for USA Today, comments on the extent to which objects will be chipped.

Each tag will contain a computer chip, storing a small amount of data, and a minuscule antenna that lets the chip communicate with a network.

In time, when billions of tags are out there and communicating, the technology will infiltrate business and everyday life to a greater extent than today's personal computers, cell phones or e-mail. In decades to come, its impact might be as fundamental as the invention of the light bulb.

Those tags will someday be on everything — egg cartons, eyeglasses, books, toys, trucks, money and so on. All those items will be able to wirelessly connect to networks or the Internet, sending information to computers, home appliances or other electronic devices.441

5. RFID Tags: Inevitable and Can't Un-invent: USA Today: April 11, 2002

Kevin Maney, writing for USA Today, reports that some see RFID tags inevitable.

"This idea is seeming less and less crazy and more and more desirable," says Auto-ID's [Kevin] Ashton [executive director of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. "Technological breakthroughs show it's not only desirable, but inevitable"...

Privacy "is an issue. There will have to be a social discourse about what we want and don't want, " says Accenture's [Glover] Ferguson [chief scientist at consulting firm Accenture]. "But the technology isn't going away: You can't un-invent it."442

6. "The Manhattan Project: Excessive Secrecy Could Be the Auto-Id Center's Achilles Heel": RFID Journal: July 22, 2002

In an "Opinion" piece, RFID Journal observed that the RFID Electronic Product Code, designed to succeed the Universal Product Code (UPC), was developed secretively.

During my interview with Alan Haberman, who was closely involved in the development of the bar code 25 years ago, for this week's feature, he mentioned something interesting. All of the meetings that the committees and subcommittees involved in the effort were open to not just people in the industry, but also to the press and public. Haberman said the minutes from the meeting were written up and distributed. And when the bar code and Universal Product Code were finally presented to the industry, there were companies ready to implement it immediately.

This struck me because it contrasts so sharply with the Auto-ID Center's current posture. The center is highly secretive. So secretive, in fact, that I've begun to think of it as the Manhattan Project. The difference in attitude towards releasing information is related to the difference in the effort to create the UPC and the effort to create the Electronic Product Code that is designed to succeed it.443

7. Forrester Research, a Cambridge, Mass., Research Firm Issues New Report, Entitled "RFID: The Smart Product (R)evolution": RFID Journal: September 4, 2002

In a news article, RFID Journal covered Forrester Research's new report.

Christine Spivey Overby, the Forrester CPG analyst who wrote the report, says the aim was to clarify some of the confusion surrounding RFID...

[Overby says,] "The big question is whether or not we get to the point where the economics let us cross the chasm from pallet- and case-level to item-level tagging"...

Among the factors needed to foster wide-scale adoption are global standards, low-cost tags, affordable multi-frequency readers, and successful pilots, such as the Auto-ID Center's field test. Overby also says that "power retailers" like Wal-Mart and Ahold will have to drive adoption.444

8. "Seize the Day: The Silent Commerce Imperative": Accenture: September 20, 2002

An Accenture report's introductory page indicates that, globally, a number of companies are using RFID.

At Accenture, we keep close tabs on the future, looking for companies that are implementing silent commerce technologies in both predictable and surprising ways. In this report, we take a close look at a number of companies (ExxonMobil, Figleaves.com, Ford Motor Company, Marks and Spencer, Shell and others) in a wide range of industries (automobile manufacturing, distribution, energy, retail, and others) that are currently using a core silent commerce technology, radio frequency identification (RFID)...

As our examples from Asia, Europe and the United States illustrate, many successful companies are finding innovative ways to use RFID technology and leverage the power of resulting information to meet and create customer demand. We believe that silent commerce will help companies around the world do the same.445

9. Alien Technology to Mass Produce Low-Cost RFID Tags: RFID Journal: September 24, 2002

In a news article, RFID Journal reported on Alien Technology's plans to mass produce low-cost RFID tags.

For more than a year, Alien Technology, a Morgan Hill, Calif., startup, has been getting a lot of press based on its ability to mass produce microchips the size of a grain of pepper for low-cost RFID tags...

[Jeff] Jacobsen [Jacobsen, Alien's senior vice president of new market development] said that Alien sold 300,000 tags to the Auto-ID Center's field test for 20 cents a piece. The company plans to drop the price by 2 cents per quarter, which means that by the time the Auto-ID Center launches its technology late next year, the tags would cost about ten cents. But strategic partners buying hundreds of millions of tags may get them for that price before then.

Alien also showed off a tiny RFID strap, a chip in a bow tie-like band that could be attached to an antenna printed with conductive ink...

But Alien envisions the ink being mixed with regular packaging ink to create antennas on boxes of cereal and other disposable packaging...

Jacobsen says that within two years, Alien could be selling the RFID straps to packaging companies for about two cents if they are buying tens of millions per year. "With these things you could literally tag a pack of chewing gum," he said.446

10. "Power Paper Plans to Design Battery-Powered Labels": RFID Journal: October 29, 2002

The RFID Journal reported on "flexible batteries to power smart labels that actively broadcast information"

One problem with RFID has always been its performance in the real world. When a forklift zooms through a dock door, the reader isn't always able to read a passive tag. Power Paper, a five-year-old company based in Tel-Aviv, Israel, hopes to change that by using its thin, flexible batteries to power smart labels that actively broadcast information.

The company has created a new division called PowerID. Baruch Levanon, Power Paper's founder and executive director, will head the division...

Power Paper's battery is printed and can be made to almost any shape. It is just 0.5 mm thick, provides 1.5 volts of power and is guaranteed to last up to two and a half years. Increasing the battery size can extend the shelf life.

Levanon says Power Paper's battery has greater storage capacity than the thin-film battery recently unveiled by Cymbet Corp. (see Thin-Film Battery May Energize RFID). Unlike Cymbet's product, however, Power Paper's battery is not rechargeable. But Levanon says the company is working to develop a rechargeable version.

Thin-film batteries are ideal for certain RFID applications because they can be used in labels, just like passive tags...

...Levanon says Power Paper should have an active smart label on the market by the end of 2004. He adds that the battery will add only two cents to the cost of the label, when manufacturing billions per year.447

11. "Gillette to Buy 500 Million EPC Tags": RFID Journal: November 15, 2002

In an "Exclusive" news article, RFID Journal reported on Gillette's plans for a large-scale purchase of RFID tags.

At the Auto-ID Center's board meeting yesterday, there was one piece of news that everyone was talking about. Just before the representatives from 83 sponsor companies broke for lunch, Dick Cantwell, Gillette's VP of worldwide beauty care products, told the group that his company plans to purchase 500 million RFID tags from Alien Technology, the Morgan Hill, Calif. Startup.

Cantwell said...shipments of the tags, which will be compliant with the Auto-ID Center's specification, should begin in March.

The news is stunning because of the sheer size of the order. No one has good market numbers, but half a billion tags is probably more than the total number of RFID tags in use today. "People couldn't stop talking about it over lunch," says one person present, who didn't want to be identified.

Gillette was a founding sponsor of the Auto-ID Center, and Cantwell serves as chairman of the MIT-based organization. So it's probably no surprise that the company is the first to actually commit to using the tags, which will carry the Auto-ID Center's electronic product code. Still, the news came as a surprise because no one expected a major company to make a purchase this soon.

Cantwell told the sponsors how important RFID is to his company and to the consumer packaged goods industry. He said Gillette would tag pallets and cases...

The purchase by Gillette, when it is made official, will mark a major milestone in the commercialization of low-cost RFID tags and the development of the Auto-ID Center's EPC network.448

12. "The World Just Changed": RFID Journal: November 15, 2002

In an "Opinion" piece, RFID Journal commented on Gillette's plans for a large-scale purchase of RFID tags.On Nov. 15, we reported exclusively that The Gillette Company plans to buy half a billion RFID tags from Alien Technology (see Gillette to Purchase 500 Million EPC Tags). It is not only the most important news that RFID Journal has broken; it's the most important news this industry has ever seen...

We now have some clarity in the market...

Gillette's decision makes it clear to end users that the Auto-ID Center's technology is real, works and is a viable option when implementing RFID...

And Gillette is not alone. Several other major multi-nationals that belong to the Auto-ID Center will likely place orders for RFID tags within the next couple of months, as they ramp up pilots. In other words, your company is probably at least a year behind.449

13. Auto-ID Center: "About The Center," "About The Technology," "The Latest News," and "Q&A"

The Auto-ID Center Web site has sections entitled, "About The Center," "About The Technology," "The Latest News," and "Q&A," among others. Following is information from these three sections.

a. "About the Center": Auto-ID Center

1) Overview

The Auto-ID Center provided overview information about the Auto-ID Center, including information about "cheap agile readers" on the autoidcenter.org Web site.

Founded in 1999, the Auto-ID Center is a unique partnership between more than 87 global companies and three of the world's leading research universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, the University of Cambridge in the UK and the University of Adelaide in Australia. Together they are creating the standards and assembling the building blocks needed to create an "Internet of things."

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a simple concept with enormous implications. Put a tag - a microchip with an antenna - on a can of Coke or a car axle, and suddenly a computer can "see" it. Put tags on every can of Coke and every car axle, and suddenly the world changes...

The Auto-ID Center is designing, building, testing and deploying a global infrastructure - a layer on top of the Internet - that will make it possible for computers to identify any object anywhere in the world instantly...

The Auto-ID Center is designing the critical elements of the new network. These elements include: Electronic Product Code or EPC, specification for cheap tags and cheap agile readers...450

2) "The New Network: Identify Any Object Anywhere Automatically"

The Auto-ID Center's "About the Auto-ID" Web page included a "Click here to Download a Brochure" option.451 That option led to a pdf document entitled, "The New Network: Identify Any Object Anywhere Automatically." "The New Network" includes an informative comment by Dick Heyman, Global Head of Life Science & Consumer Product Industries, Sun Microsystems Inc.

In the near future, every single object will be connected to the Internet through a wireless address and unique identifier. The Auto-ID Center is creating the standards that will shape this new age."452

3) "Our Sponsors"

The Auto-ID Center's "Our Sponsors" Web page included the following information about the Center's Board of Overseers and the Technology Board, as well as a listing of members of each Board via a "View members for" "Board of Overseers," and "Technology Board" drop-down list box.

End-user sponsors - those that will buy EPC-related technologies - are eligible to join the Center's Board of Overseers. All Overseers are required to make a one-time donation of $300,000. Vendors that plan to sell EPC-related technologies or services are eligible to join the Technology Board. All technology vendors are required to donate $50,000 to $150,000, depending on their annual sales.453

a) Auto-ID Center Board of Overseers

Accessing the Auto-ID Center "Board of Overseers" drop-down list box on March 19, 2003 yielded a list of 40 entities, 29 of which are listed below.

Abbott Laboratories, Best Buy Corporation, Canon Inc., Coca-Cola, CVS, Department of Defense, Eastman Kodak, Home Depot, International Paper, Johnson & Johnson, Kellogg's Corporation, Kimberly Clark Corporation, Kraft, Lowes Companies, Inc., Nestle, Pepsi, Pfizer, Philip Morris USA, Procter and Gamble Company, Sara Lee, Target Corp., Tesco Stores Ltd., The Gillette Company, Unilever, United States Postal Service, UPS, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., and Westvaco.

b) Auto-ID Center Technology Board

Accessing the Auto-ID Center "Technology Board" drop-down list box on March 19, 2003 yielded a list of 52 entities, 11 of which are listed below.

ACNielsen, Alien Technology, Avery Dennison, British Telecommunications (BT), IBM Business Consulting Services, Intel, NCR Corporation, Nihon Unisys Ltd., Philips Semiconductors, Sun Microsystems, Zebra Technologies Corporation.455

b. "About The Technology": Auto-ID Center

The Auto-ID Center provided six segments about the technology related to the work of the Auto-ID Center on the autoidcenter.org Web site.

1) "Introduction"

The first section, entitled, "Introduction" includes the following observations.

The Auto-ID Center aims to change the world. By creating an open global network that can identify anything, anywhere, automatically, it seeks to give companies something that, until now, they have only dreamed of: near-perfect supply chain visibility.456

2) "What is Automatic Identification?"

The second section, entitled, "What is Automatic Identification?" includes the following observations.

Automatic identification, or Auto-ID for short, is the broad term given to a host of technologies that are used to help machines identify objects...

RFID is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify individual items. There are several methods of identifying objects using RFID, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a product, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it. This is the technology the Auto-ID Center has chosen to focus on.457

3) "Why Focus on Radio Frequency Identification?"

The third section, entitled, "Why Focus on Radio Frequency Identification?" includes the following observations.

[B]ar codes have one big shortcoming: they are line-of-sight technology... Radio frequency identification, by contrast, doesn't require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a reader... And standard bar codes identify only the manufacturer and product, not the unique item.

RFID is a proven technology that's been around since the Second World War. Up to now, it's been too expensive and too limited to be practical for many commercial applications. But if tags can be made cheaply enough, they can solve many of the problems associated with bar codes.458

4) "The Importance of Tracking Individual Items"

The fourth section, entitled, "The Importance of Tracking Individual Items," includes the following observation.

[C]ompanies will be able to know exactly where every item in their supply chain is at any moment in time.459

5) "Creating an Internet of Things"

The fifth section, entitled, "Creating an Internet of Things," includes the following observations.

The Internet connects computers to one another. What the Auto-ID Center aims to do, in effect, is develop a network that connects computers to objects - boxes of laundry detergent, pairs of jeans, airplane engines. We are not creating just the hardware (RIFD tags and readers) or just the software to run the network...

Creating one, open global network for RFID... also means that manufacturers of RFID equipment can make equipment in vast quantities, since it will work with anyone's system, which will help bring down the price of both tags and readers.460

6) "Identifying Trillions of Items"

The sixth section, entitled, "Identifying Trillions of Items," includes the following pertinent observations.

a) "How do you distinguish between one can of Coke and another?"

A response to the question, "How do you distinguish between one can of Coke and another?" states:

There are a number of ways, but the best solution we've found is to give each item a unique number - a license plate, if you will. The Auto-ID Center has proposed a universal standard for product "license plates" - the Electronic Product Code.

b) "How do you track the item using the license plate?"

A response to the question, "How do you track the item using the license plate?" states:

The answer is to create a network of RFID readers (sometimes called interrogators).461

c. "The Latest News": Auto-ID Center: Jan/Feb 2003

1) "The Latest News": Auto-ID Center: Jan/Feb 2003

"The Latest News" Jan/Feb 2003 section of the Auto-ID Center Web site had reports on a number of topics. Following is information from two topics of "The Latest News" Jan/Feb 2003 section.

a) "Auto-ID Center Launches New Website"

The Auto-ID Center provided information about a new Website launched "the 27th of January."

The Auto-ID Center has updated its Website to include the very latest information and resources...

The new site was launched on Monday the 27th of January - check it out at:

http://www.autoidcenter.org/main.asp462

b) "Auto-ID Center Opens Lab in Japan"

The Auto-ID Center provided information about the opening of an Auto-ID Center research lab in Japan."

The Auto-ID Center announced the opening of its fourth research lab at Keio University in Japan on January 22nd 2003.463

2) "The Latest News": Auto-ID Center: Mar/Apr 2003

"The Latest News" Mar/Apr 2003 section of the Auto-ID Center Web site had reports on a number of topics. Following is information from one topic, "Auto-ID Center and Tokyo Ubiquitous ID Center Plan Alliance," of "The Latest News" Mar/Apr 2003 section.

Talks are underway between the Auto-ID Center and the University of Tokyo's new Ubiquitous ID Center about joint research and a possible alliance. The Ubiquitous-ID Center is led by Professor Ken Sakamura…, inventor of the TRON real-time operating system and a leader in the emerging field of Ubiquitous Computing. The Auto-ID Center's Executive Director Kevin Ashton met with Professor Sakamura in Tokyo at the beginning of March to discuss the plan, which could see the Ubiquitous ID project working closely with the Auto-ID Center's Keio University Lab in Tokyo, headed by Professor Jun Murai. "Professor Sakamura has an incredible track record in envisioning the future and making it real," said Ashton. "We had a very positive meeting, and I think we are all very excited by the prospect of working together to make ubiquitous automatic identification a success."464

d. "Q&A": Auto-ID Center

The "Q&A", i.e., Question and Answer, section of the Auto-ID Center Web site has subsections entitled, "Field Test" and "About the Center," among others. Following is information from these two subsections of the Q&A section.

1) "Field Test"

The Auto-ID Center provided information about a "Field Test" on the "Q&A" section of the autoidcenter.org Web site. The "Field Test" material is organized in response to the following three questions.

a) "I've read about a test that the Auto-ID Center is conducting. What is being tested?"

Following is an excerpt from the answer to this question.

On October 1, 2001 the Auto-ID Center and a group of its sponsors started a field test of prototype, supply-chain technology. Elements of this technology...

...will be combined with a network of tags, readers, and computers - assembled from existing technologies - to track pallets and cases of products as they move across a limited supply chain.465

b) "Where is the field test located, and who is participating?"

Following is an excerpt from the answer to this question.

The supply chain, specially selected for this test, will include several distribution centers and two retail outlets...The retail outlets will include a Sam's Club and Wal-Mart store in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Test collaborators include the Auto-ID Center, CHEP, International Paper, Gillette, Johnson & Johnson, Kraft Foods, Procter & Gamble, Savi Technologies, Unilever, Wal-Mart, Sun Microsystems, Coca-Cola and others.466

c) "When will the test be done, and what are you hoping to accomplish from it?"

Following is an excerpt from the answer to this question.

The test began on October 1, 2001, and will proceed in two phases over the course of eight-plus months...

If these technologies can be proven in the field (outside the lab), they have the potential to significantly improve supply-chain management.467

2) "About the Center"

The Auto-ID Center provided information "About the Center" on the "Q&A" section of the autoidcenter.org Web site. Following were answers to two of the "About the Center" questions.

a) "What will the Center actually deliver and when?"

Following is an excerpt from the answer to this question.

By the end of 2003, we will have enabled vendors and users to start investing in EPC-related technology with reasonable assurance that the technology works, that there are compelling commercial reasons to do so, and that the public will be comfortable with the technology.468

b) "What makes the Auto-ID Center unique? Is there any competition?"

Following is an excerpt from the answer to this question that notes a "global network for... low-cost RFID tags and readers."

...[T]he Auto-ID Center may be the first time in history that companies from different industries and different regions of the world have come together to develop technology they feel would benefit their businesses — and their competitors' businesses. There are groups of RFID vendors that have come together to propose standards or to foster the development in the RFID industry in other ways. These are not, however, the Auto-ID Center's competitors. None are focused on developing an open, global network for tracking individual items with low-cost RFID tags and readers.469

14. Microsoft Joining Auto-ID Inc.: RFID Journal: June 11, 2003

The RFID Journal reported that, "Microsoft announced that it is joining Auto-ID Inc."

Microsoft announced that it is joining Auto-ID Inc., saying it will develop software for RFID applications. Microsoft has been in talks with the Auto-ID Center for months. It is interested in not just supplying software, but also tracking its Xbox, which has been a hit with gamers.470

15. Widescale RFID Project to Be Announced: USA Today: January 27, 2003

Michelle Kessler, writing for USA Today, reports that a widescale RFID Project is expected to be announced.

By the end of the year, a host of consumer products will, for the first time, be sold with tiny computer chips known as RFID tags in them...

Next month, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Auto-ID research center, which designs the chip technology, is expected to announce a widescale RFID project, involving big partners such as Johnson & Johnson, Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Home Depot and Target. The center has not yet specified which products will be tested in which stores.471

16. Seismic Shift: RFID: Line56: February 13, 2003

An article in Line56, "RFID Rising," reported on "the first seismic shift" occurring with regard to RFID.

We have been watching for awhile, but it was just five months ago that we introduced our own readers to the topic of radio frequency identification, (RFID) passive and active semiconductor chips that could be embedded in products and read on the fly to help track goods in the supply chain, and reduce theft and counterfeiting. (Older readers might recall being fascinated 25 years ago by the barcodes and security devices RFID is just beginning to replace.)

Now the game is afoot, and companies quick to the mark are looking pretty smart for it. We're mere months from the first standards release (driven by the folks at MIT, thank goodness) the stars are aligning, and companies are not waiting. The latest vision was last month's commitment by Gillette to buy 500 million RFID tags from privately held Alien Technology. Five hundred million is a lot of anything, but it's really the tip of the iceberg.

"When we saw Alien and Gillette coming, we just looked at each other and said well, here comes the first seismic shift that takes this from being on peripheral vision to something on radar," says Lyle Ginsburg, managing partner of technology innovation at Accenture Technology Labs in Chicago.

...In Gillette's case, Ginsburg thinks risk is minimal since the company is working through a single consortium and standard going forward driven by 80-some of the top companies in the world. The global 'punch' of this is not to be underestimated. "Now they're saying, 'here's the way we are going to do this so everybody please start building this way.'"472

17. Bologna, Italy, Company Designed RFID System for Tracking Garments: RFID Journal: February 19, 2003

In a news article, RFID Journal reported that Lab ID has designed an RFID system for tracking garments and other items.

Marco Astorri wants to make RFID fashionable. The executive VP of Lab ID, based in Bologna, Italy, has been working on a complete radio frequency identification system to be used to track garments and other items.

Lab ID has spent 10 million Euros and 15 months developing tags, readers and antennas that operate at high frequency (13.56 MHz), as well as the software necessary to manage the readers...

Astorri says that Lab ID is also working with companies that make and sell consumer goods, electrical appliances, and electronics equipment. "We think these will become significant markets pretty soon," he says.473

18. "A Radio Chip in Every Consumer Product": nytimes.com: February 25, 2003

Claudia H. Deutsch and Barnaby J. Feder report in The New York Times about radio-frequency identification.

Such technology, known as radio-frequency identification — the same techniques that enable an electronic sensor to record data from an E-ZPass tag or an office door to open for people with chip-equipped cards in their pockets — could one day stymie pilferers. But it is also capable of doing much more for commerce. Beyond Gillette and Procter & Gamble, companies as diverse as International Paper and Canon USA are teaming up with retailers and customers to apply R.F.I.D., as it is known, to tracking products from the time they leave an assembly line to the time they leave the store.

The companies are tagging clothes, drugs, auto parts, copy machines and even mail with chips laden with information about content, origin and destination. They are also equipping shelves, doors and walls with sensors that can record that data when the products are near. "We want to track all of our merchandise, and that includes items that people are unlikely to steal," William C. Wertz, a spokesman for Wal-Mart Stores, said...

Even the United States Postal Service has gotten into the act. Last month, it promoted Charles E. Bravo, until then its chief technology officer, to the new job of senior vice president for intelligent mail and address quality, and charged him with studying tracking technologies.474

19. "RFID Security Applications Attract Attention Post-September 11th, 2001": Frontline Solutions: February 18, 2003

Frontline Solutions reported that September 11th, 2001, influenced the attention given to RFID security applications.

RFID security applications attract attention post-September 11th, 2001 -- the increased demand for security applications such as homeland security, employee identification, people tracking and access control exerted a strong influence on RFID shipments in 2002. VDC research says there was an increase in end user evaluation of, and spending for, RFID-enabled access control systems and employee tracking/identification programs across all economic sectors.

20. "RFID System Secures Idle PCs": RFID Journal: February 27, 2003

In a news article, RFID Journal reported that "Access Denied Systems combines proximity cards with fingerprint authentication to lock up computers when users leave their keyboards."

As viewers of the film "Catch Me If You Can" know, identity theft can be tough to stop. Access Denied Systems, located in St. Louis, Missouri, has come out with an RFID security system that could verify that only authorized users get access to a company's computer terminals.

21. Handheld and Fixed RFID Electronic Product Code (EPC) Readers: RFID Journal: February 28, 2003

In a news article, RFID Journal reported on Matrics' introduction of handheld and fixed RFID readers.

Matrics, an RFID equipment provider in Columbia, Maryland, has introduced a new handheld RFID reader and revealed plans to market the first fixed RFID reader that handles tags based on the Auto-ID Center's Class 0 and Class 1 specifications.

Matrics says its handheld can read up to 200 tags per second at a read range of up to 10 feet. Most UHF handheld readers operating in the UHF range have a read range of two to three feet. "That's huge in terms of efficiency because you can step back from items and scan fairly aggressively," says Matrics CEO Piyush Sodha...

Matrics has also introduced a new fixed reader, called Advanced RFID Reader...

Matrics says the reader can read more than 1,000 tags per second at a read range of up to 30 feet...

The handheld will be available from April. The fixed reader will begin shipping in June.477

22. Brief Historical Overview of Human RFID Microchip Implants: "Chips in Alzheimer's Patients ... Most ...Publicly Acceptable Use of Human Implants with Which to Begin": Privacy Journal: Summary of February 2003 Edition Article in the March 2003 Edition

Privacy Journal provided a brief historical overview of germane elements of the use of human RFID microchip implants.

There [is] a "ChipMobile" moving about the nation — or at least about communities in Florida. It's Applied Digital Solutions' "state-of-the-art, fully equipped mobile unit to spread awareness about the benefits of VeriChip to wide audiences."

VeriChip, first announced in December 2001, is a miniaturized radio-frequency identification device (RFID) that can be used in "a variety of security, financial, emergency, identification and health-care applications," according to the company. It now has seven authorized VeriChip centers in Florida, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere in the U. S.

Back in September 1994, PRIVACY JOURNAL reported, "Entrepreneurs in the microchip-implant business who are eager to sell their products to 'the human market' have said that implanting identity chips in Alzheimer's patients would be the most benign and publicly acceptable use of human implants with which to begin."

Indeed, doctors for Applied Digital Solutions first implanted the tiny VeriChip transponder in a memory-impaired patient on May 10, 2002. Now there are 20 Americans walking around with them, including the company's public relations consultant, who proudly wears an implant in his upper right arm. The new chips are inert demos right now because the reading devices for them are scarce and because the chips do not locate the individual or store medical information.

For the complete story, ask us for a sample copy of the February 2003 edition:

E-mail us for a sample copy.

23. RFID Pilot Projects: Frontline Solutions: March 1, 2003

Frontline Solutions reported on two pilot projects employing RFID.

Two major pilot programs put in place in the last two months could end up catapulting radio frequency identification (RFID) into a mainstream supply chain technology.

The Gillette Co., Boston, in the first commercial application of tags using the Electronic Product Code (ePC) technology, announced that it will begin large-scale testing later this year...

In an equally as promising development, Michelin North America Inc., Greenville, S.C., announced it is testing RFID tags to meet federal government regulations for tire traceability in the event of a recall.

Once testing is completed (about 18 months), Michelin-which is making the tag technology available to its competitors-could begin producing RFID-tagged tires for passenger vehicles and light trucks in the 2005 model year. "Applications like [the one at Michelin] will drive the ability of the tire industry to provide full track-and-trace capabilities," says Saleem Miyan, global strategic manager, Philips Semiconductors, Einhoven, The Netherlands.

Miyan expects these applications, particularly the one at Michelin, to kick-start demand for the whole RFID industry. "The market has been waiting for someone to be first," he says, adding that the tire application has the additional weight of government regulations and the existence of an accepted industry standard between it.479

24. A Network of Trillions of Things: Financial Times: March 5, 2003

Simon London, writing in the Financial Times, suggests that RFID chips will transform the Internet "to a network of trillions of 'things'."

Alien Technology is a small California-based company that sells microchips...

While a thumbnail-sized Pentium is capable of processing monumental amounts of data, an Alien chip is about the size of a grain of sand and is designed to do only one job: storing a miserly 96 bits of information, just enough to endow it with a unique identity...

If you believe the futurists, chips like those from Alien will transform the internet from a network of millions of computers to a network of trillions of "things".

According to this vision, every last widget, tyre and packet of Cheerios will come with a tiny microchip and antenna embedded, allowing it to be tracked from factory to warehouse to store and, perhaps, out into the world. Welcome to the world of radio frequency identification, otherwise known as RFID...

For retailers, the potential gains include smaller inventories, shelves that are always stocked and lower labour costs. Gillette is working with Wal-Mart, the world's largest retailer, and Tesco, the UK's biggest supermarket group, to test smart shelves that can recognise its tagged razors.

A quick look through a list of corporate sponsors of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which is leading the development of industry standards for RFID, hints at other big companies that are likely to follow. The growing list includes Procter & Gamble, Coca Cola, Home Depot, International Paper, Johnson & Johnson, Unilever, UPS and the United States Postal Service.480

25. Goal for RFID Is to Increase Productivity: 0HIO: "Zero Human Involvement Operations": RFID Journal: March 10, 2003

In an "Opinion" piece, RFID Journal reflected on a goal for RFID to increase productivity via 0HIO, "zero human involvement operations."

But it is crystal clear to me, and has been for a while, that radio frequency identification has the potential to boost productivity in ways that very few other technologies can. That's because RFID takes people out of the loop.

John Greaves, director of RFID at CHEP, has coined the term 0HIO, for "zero human involvement operations." 0HIO is a place where people don't have to scan bar codes. That saves time and makes employees more productive. [0]HIO is a place where people don't waste time counting inventory over and over, where people don't sit at a keyboard and enter routine information about what was shipped and when, where robots can identify and interact with components.

But getting to 0HIO is not going to be easy. I've said this before: Putting tags on goods and readers on doorways is the easy part...

RFID can take human beings out of particular operations, but no technology will replace good management.481

26. RFID Technology "Unstoppable": RFID Journal: March 10, 2003

Bob Violino, writing in an RFID Journal "Special Sponsored Section" that focuses on Accenture, covers views about the future of RFID technology.

Many business executives around the world are wondering about all the buzz surrounding radio frequency identification. What makes a radio-powered microchip with a serial number so important? The answer, according to Glover Ferguson, Chief Scientist at Accenture, can be summed up in one word: Information...

Accenture calls this "silent commerce." But Ferguson sees this as only the first stage in a trend toward what he calls "reality online."

Once individual objects can be identified, companies then can add temperature, motion, radiation and other sensors, as well as miniature microphones or video cameras. Then, not only will these objects be able to identify themselves to computers, they will be able to provide information about their status and condition. That data can be stored online to create a digital representation of the physical world - a virtual double of the real world...

As tag and reader prices come down, RFID will proliferate because companies need ways to gather accurate real-time information...

Ferguson gets extremely excited by the prospect when he talks about it. But he takes pains to explain that most of the needed technology exists today and that this is not just a pie-in-the-sky idea way off in the future.

"It's unstoppable, it's inexorable, he says. "This is going to happen."482

27. Benetton Clothing: A Case Study regarding Early Consideration of RFID Tags' Use in Consumer Goods

Benetton clothing stores' consideration of early use of RFID tags in consumer goods provides initial information for a case study.

a. "Benetton Selects Philips to Introduce Smart Labels across 5,000 Worldwide Stores": Philips Press Release: March 11, 2003

A Philips press release announced its role in providing Benetton garments with "RFID-enabled labels."

Royal Philips Electronics...today announced that it has joined forces with LAB ID and Psion Teklogix to provide Benetton with the world's largest and most comprehensive item level tagging implementation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in the fashion industry to date...

Clothes produced under Benetton's core brand Sisley have been fitted with RFID-enabled labels based on Philips' I.CODE semiconductor technology...

"Benetton has thousands of retail outlets worldwide and therefore wanted to put in place a future-proof technology to bring clear cost benefits to the business whilst seamlessly enabling garments to be tracked throughout their lifetime," said Terry Phipps, electronic data processing (EDP) director at the Benetton Group...

Smart labels overcome the limitations of traditional barcode technology...

This technology will also be employed at the point of sale, automatically registering sales and returns...483

b. "Benetton Clothing to Carry Tiny Tracking Transmitters": Associated Press on SFGate.com: March 11, 2003

Jim Krane, AP Technology Writer, reported that Benetton's Sisley clothing will contain a radio frequency ID tag.

Clothes sold at Benetton stores will soon contain microchip transmitters that allow the Italian retailer to track its garments from their point of manufacture to the moment they're sold in any of its 5,000 shops.

Benetton's introduction of "smart tag" tracking technology will be the largest example of a trend now emerging in the retail industry, according to Phillips Semiconductors, a unit of the Dutch electronics giant that designed 15 million tags being delivered to Benetton this year.

Benetton's Sisley line of clothing will contain a Philips Electronics radio frequency ID tag that will replace ubiquitous bar codes, which have to be manually scanned...

Such scenarios could lead to protests over "spy clothes" on privacy grounds, said Wayne Madsen of the Electronic Privacy Information Center.

"There really needs to be legislation if companies are doing this," Madsen said. "They say it's for internal use. But what would prevent them from sharing it with third parties, with the government or criminal investigators?"...

Philips has already sold a half-billion of the inexpensive chips, the largest portion of which are used in smart cards for public transportation systems, [Karsten] Ottenberg[, senior vice president of Philips Semiconductors, based in Hamburg, Germany] said.484

c. "Benetton to Tag 15 Million Items": RFID Journal: March 12, 2003

In a news article, the RFID Journal reported on Benetton's plans for using RFID for its clothes in more than 5,000 stores globally.

[Y]esterday...Philips Semiconductors revealed that Benetton, the clothing retailer based in Treviso, Italy, would be tagging a complete line of its clothes at more than 5,000 stores globally.

Philips says it will ship 15 million chips this year for use in labels that will be put on the clothes when they are manufactured. That makes this one of the largest RFID implementations ever by any company. The Gillette Co. recently ordered 500 million RFID tags, but those will be delivered over three years, and the company has only just begun to take delivery.

Clothes produced under Benetton's core brand Sisley will be fitted with RFID labels...

It's not clear how long it will take Benetton to install readers in its 5,000 stores...485

d. "Clothier Benetton Adopts Philips' RFID Technology for 'Smart' Labels": EE Times: March 12, 2003

An EE Times article comments on the extent to which RFID chips have been used in some aspects of industry.

Philips Semiconductors' RFID chip will be embedded into the label of every new garment bearing the name of Benetton's core clothing brand, Sisley...

While Philips' RFID chips are already in wide use for tracking parts throughout manufacturing process at Dell Computers, Toyota and Ford, the deal with Benetton makes it "the single biggest roll-out of RFID technology in the fashion industry to date," Scott McGregor, chief executive officer at Philips Semiconductors, said in a statement.486

e. Journal Reports Boycott Called in Response to Benetton Plans to Tag 15 Million Items: RFID Journal: March 12, 2003

In a news article, the RFID Journal reported on a boycott called in response to Benetton's plans for using RFID for its clothes in more than 5,000 stores globally.

[Y]esterday...Philips Semiconductors revealed that Benetton, the clothing retailer based in Treviso, Italy, would be tagging a complete line of its clothes at more than 5,000 stores globally...

It's not clear how long it will take Benetton to install readers in its 5,000 stores, but the retailer, which had sales of $2 billion last year, is likely to raise privacy concerns. Even though the tags have a read range of just three feet, some privacy groups are concerned about the possible abuse of the technology.

CASPIAN (Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering) has called for a worldwide boycott of Benetton. A Philips's spokesperson told RFID Journal that the tags "have a feature that enables the retailer to disable the chip once a product has been purchased. This destroy command deactivates the chip and erases data stored on it thereby granting the privacy of the buyer."

The "self-destruct" command can be used at the discretion of the retailer and depends on the set-up of the project. Benetton has not said whether it will disable the tags at the point of sale.

Unless there is a big public outcry, however, Benetton is not going to be the last retailer to adopt RFID.487

f. Press Release regarding Benetton and RFID Microchips: April 4, 2003

A press release addressed and clarified Benetton's position regarding RFID microchips.

Benetton Group, with reference to articles recently published in the press, declares that no microchips (Smart Labels) are present in the more than 100 million garments produced and sold throughout the world under its brand names, including the Sisley brand.

Benetton, which has always been a leader in technological innovation in the clothing sector, is currently analysing RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to evaluate its technical characteristics and emphasizes that no feasibility studies have yet been undertaken with a view to the possible industrial introduction of this technology.

On completion of all studies on this matter, including careful analysis of potential implications relating to individual privacy, the company reserves the right to take the most appropriate decision to generate maximum value for its stakeholders and customers...488

g. Benetton Press Release in Response to Negative Press: RFID Journal: April 11, 2003

The RFID Journal reported on a Benetton press release related to "putting RFID tags in clothes."

Benetton...issued a press release saying it is not committed to putting RFID tags in clothes. The move was in response to negative press drummed up by privacy advocates after Benetton announced plans to tag i[t]s Sisley line of clothing.489

h. "Benetton Explains RFID Privacy Flap": RFID Journal: June 23, 2003

An RFID Journal article reported in a leading summary sentence that, "Mauro Benetton clears up the confusion behind the Benetton Group's RFID announcement."

Does Benetton plan to use RFID tags to track garments made under its Sisley brand? Why did one of its suppliers say it was and why did the company later refute that? These questions have been lingering since the flap over privacy erupted, and now they have been answered by Mauro Benetton, director of marketing for the Benetton Group, in an exclusive interview with RFID Journal. (For detailed excerpts of the interview, which covered much more than privacy, see Benetton Talks about RFID Plans)

Before we get to his explanation of the controversy, a little background for those who haven't followed the story. Back on March 11, Philips Semiconductors revealed that Benetton planned to put RFID labels on all clothes produced under Benetton's core Sisley brand and track them through the supply chain to more than 5,000 stores globally...

...And RFID Journal revealed that Mauro Benetton was, in fact, president of Lab ID, the RFID systems integrator Benetton was using (see Behind the Benetton Brouhaha).

So what really happened?

"The confusion was probably caused by the fact that my name is Benetton," says Mauro Benetton. "[Lab ID is] testing RFID with Benetton and with a lot of different partners. But the fact that my name is Benetton made Philips think that the technology was being used by Benetton, but it wasn't" [editorial brackets in original].

Benetton points out that there were a number of factual errors in the Philips release. One was that Benetton was buying 15 million transponders this year. The retailer does produce 15 million garments under its Sisley brand, but it had no plans to tag them all this year, according to Mauro. The release also indicated that Benetton has 5,000 stores, when it has only around 1,800. And it failed to make clear that the plan was to test the technology first and roll it out to the entire line only if the tests showed there Benetton would get a return on its investment...

Will Benetton still consider tagging its clothes? Mauro...says "we never stopped the test." He believes Benetton will go ahead with plans to tag the Sisley line if the tests are successful, albeit with more sensitivity to the need to educate consumers about the technology.490

28. "The Wal-Mart Factor": RFID Journal: March 17, 2003

In an "Opinion" piece, RFID Journal commented on the effect Wal-Mart will have "on how RFID technology is adopted."

Consider a few facts. Wal-Mart's annual sales are greater than the combined sales of the entire semiconductor industry. Wal-Mart's sales are greater than the gross domestic product of Turkey. Wal-Mart imports more goods from China ($14 billion) than Japan does ($10 billion). And it employs more people than Ford, General Motors, Exxon Mobil and GE combined.

Size gives Wal-Mart clout to make demands on suppliers that many other companies couldn't make. So it's understandable that suppliers are nervous about whether -- or perhaps when -- Wal-Mart will require them to put RFID tags on products. In this week's feature, we answer the question: Will Wal-Mart Order RFID Tagging?...

I've said this before, but the Electronic Product Code technology being developed by the Auto-ID Center will take off when Wal-Mart decides to adopt it. That's the Wal-Mart Factor, and it's now in play. As our feature this week clearly indicates, Wal-Mart is going to set the pace for RFID adoption. The wheels are in motion. Something could derail the effort, no doubt, but if I were a Wal-Mart supplier, I would start boning up on RFID.491

29. Companies Develop Small, Low-Cost Microchips for RFID Tags: RFID Journal: March 20, 2003

In a news article, RFID Journal reported that the Swiss semiconductor company, EM Microelectronics, along with other manufacturers, has developed small low-cost microchips for RFID tags.

EM Microelectronics has developed an ultra-small microchip for RFID tags operating in the UHF band. The chip is just .5 millimeters by .5 millimeters and will sell for less than 10 cents in large volumes...

A number of manufacturers, including Alien Technology and Matrics, have developed small RFID chips as a way to bring down the overall tag costs. Hitachi recently unveiled a prototype of the world's smallest chip (see Hitachi Unveils Smallest RFID Chip).492

30. Ubiquitous Computing

a. Ubiquitous RFID: RFID Tags Attached to People: RFID Journal: March 21, 2003

The RFID Journal reported that a number of Japanese companies have organized to promote ubiquitous RFID. "In one experiment, RFID tags were attached to people..."

Several major Japanese companies have joined forces to back the Ubiquitous ID Center. The goal of the center is to develop technologies that will enable the widespread use of radio frequency identification and other pervasive computing technologies. It could emerge in Japan as a rival to the Auto-ID Center.

Among the center's backers are Dai Nippon Printing, Hitachi, NEC and Toppan Printing. Ken Sakamura, a professor of information science at the University of Tokyo, runs the center, which was established in December...

The center is not aimed at pure research, but rather will work with the companies supporting it to develop products. Sakamura has run RFID projects since the early 1990s. In one experiment, RFID tags were attached to people, paper documents and electronic IDs to electronic documents...

"As an extension of that, it is necessary to attach IDs to all things involved in ubiquitous computing, not just office furniture," Sakamura told RFID Journal. "The Ubiquitous ID Center is the base for all the elements, such as the embedded devices, smart cards, and RFID tags, that form the networks."

Unlike the Auto-ID Center, which seeks to create a single, global numbering system, the Ubiquitous ID Center uses a meta-code format. Meta-tags stored on the R[FI]D chip refer to other number systems, such as the JAN Code in Japan, the Universal Product Code (UPC) in the US and the International Standard Book Number.493

b. Ubiquitous Computing: Concept of Privacy: September 14, 2002

Marc Langheinrich of the Distributed Systems Group, Institute for Pervasive Computing, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, wrote about the concept of privacy in relation to ubiquitous computing.

As the field of ubiquitous computing matures, more and more of the key issues start shifting away from mere technical problems to those that have a fundamentally social background: How are we to use those smart devices in our daily routine? When should they be turned on and off? What should they be allowed to see, feel, or hear? And whom should they tell about it?

Among such questions, privacy is probably the most prominent concern when it comes to judging the effects of a widespread deployment of ubiquitous computing. This is certainly due to the already imminent threat to privacy caused by the ever growing use of distributed commercial databases that record large parts of our daily electronic transactions. By virtue of its very definitions, ubiquitous computing has now the potential to create an even more invisible and comprehensive surveillance network covering an unprecedented share of our public and private life. Consequently, much has been written about privacy in light of automated data processing [3, 5, 6], though less so in the context of ubiquitous computing [2, 9, 10].

The following article tries to add a more differentiated view on the impact of ubiquitous computing on personal privacy by first examining why personal privacy is desirable, describing when we feel that it has been violated, and then assessing how ubiquitous computing affects all that.494

31. Auto-ID Lab: Switzerland, China: RFID Journal: April 8, 2003

The Auto-ID Center, with a focus on RFID, is a partnership of various types of institutions, including the following research universities: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, the University of Cambridge in the UK, the University of Adelaide in Australia,495 and Keio University in Japan,496 The Auto-ID Center opened a new lab at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland and planned to open a lab in China.

The Auto-ID Center today opens a lab in the heart of continental Europe, with a facility at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland...

The Auto-ID Center is eager to promote the adoption of EPC technology in Europe (see Will Europe Embrace the EPC?. The new lab gives the center a presence in the center of Europe, where anyone can drive to learn about its work, see demonstrations. The center has had a lab in Cambridge, England, since 2001. A lab will open in China next month.497

32. "EPC in Fashion at Marks & Spencer": RFID Journal: April 11, 2003

The RFID Journal reported on Marks & Spencer's plans to test "RFID technology in a pilot."

Marks & Spencer this week said it will launch a pilot in which it will tag individual apparel items. The company plans to use UHF tags based on the Electronic Product Code technology developed by the Auto-ID Center. One key aim will be to determine whether the technology can improve customer service and increase sales.

The pilot will be run in one store from September to December. If it proves as successful as pilots run by the Gap and other retailers, it could lead Marks & Spencer to eventually tag 350 million apparel items a year.

"The significance of this announcement is really twofold," says Adrian Segens, business development manager for Intellident, the Manchester-based systems integrator that will be installing the technology. "It's the first significant move of RFID into a retail environment, and it's the first [...] time EPC is being used to any serious extent in Europe."

Bella Pagdin, a spokesperson for Marks & Spencer, said that the company got £305,000 (US$478,846) from the UK's Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) to launch the pilot...

The announcement came only days after another European retailer, Benetton, issued a press release saying it is not committed to putting RFID tags in clothes…Marks & Spencer has not formulated a formal privacy plan but will address the issue.498

33. "RFID Makes Connections at Event": RFID Journal: April 10, 2003

The RFID Journal reported about a new "RFID conference badge" that utilizes readers "placed strategically around the meeting rooms."

At a conference to be held in Las Vegas later this month, ... everyone will be wearing an nTag, an RFID-powered conference badge that could make events more productive for both attendees and organizers.

...Each nTag has a semi-passive RFID tag operating in the UHF band, which enables a conference organizer to use it for security, to record how many people attended certain sessions, or to track how many people visited certain areas of an exposition floor.

Readers placed strategically around the meeting rooms and show floor can scan data off the tag or write to the tags. So the nTag can be used for interactive audience response and polling. Organizers can also send messages to all attendees or to specific attendees without having to page them. The tags can be reprogrammed en masse.499

34. Metro AG, Germany's Largest Retailer, Opens "Store of the Future": RFID Journal: April 28, 2003

The RFID Journal reported on Metro AG's opening a concept store "designed to test RFID and other technologies."

Metro AG, Germany's largest retailer, today will open what it calls the "store of the future." The concept store is designed to test RFID and other technologies under real-world conditions to see how they perform and how consumers respond to them.

One of Metro's Extra stores in Rheinberg, Germany, has been outfitted with smart shelves, RFID self-checkout systems, kiosks, smart scales and other leading-edge technologies. The store is open to customers who can either cho[o]se to use the new systems or shop the old-fashioned way...

Suppliers, including Gillette, Kraft, and Procter & Gamble are working with Metro to tag goods. Gillette is tagging its razors, which are tracked using smart shelves that were developed by OAT Systems. The shelves monitor the number of items on it, and alert staff when more product needs to be brought out from the back room (see Is This the Future of Retailing?).

Individual products in the Future Store, including CDs, DVDs and videos, are tagged using RFID tags with I-Code microchips from Philips, which incorporate theft protection. The tags operate at 13.56MHz and have a read range of up to 1.5 meters (5 feet). Cosmetics and food products are also being tagged to provide real-time inventory data and to track expiration dates...

In addition to showing the benefits of tracking items with tags, the store will also show how the tags can provide additional benefits to Metro customers. For instance, when you swipe a tagged music CD near a reader, the system will play a sample of music from the disk...

Inside the store, customers can cruise down the aisles pushing a shopping cart that has a touch screen computer that provides directions to products. Shoppers who opt-in can scan their ID card into the computer. They can then scan the bar codes on products they want and put them into the cart. (Later, this could be done with RFID.) The computer on the cart sends the prices to checkout by radio signals through a wireless local area network network. When the customer checks out, the cash register system displays the total and the cashier takes your money and gives you change...

The project uses EPC infrastructure technology, but not actual EPC numbers because there is no organization to issue those numbers yet. The store is the largest deployment of EPC technology in Europe so far. Tesco has been testing smart shelf technology with Gillette at one of its UK stores. And Marks & Spencer revealed that it plans to launch a pilot in which it will track clothes using EPC technology (see EPC in Fashion at Marks & Spencer).500

35. "Xtag Unveils Infant Security System": RFID Journal: May 27, 2003

The RFID Journal reported that a "UK company has devised an RFID system that can be integrated with a hospital's access-control network."

Xtag, a company based in Leeds, UK, has developed a new RFID security system for tracking babies in hospital infant wards or wandering patients in elder care facilities. Xtag says its readers are designed to work with existing access control systems.

The Xtag system consists of a bracelet with an embedded battery-powered tag that operates at 433.92 MHz, readers placed at doorways and in hospital hallways, and software that manages the system. The transponder in a baby or patient's bracelet or a staff member's ID badge emits a signal every two seconds. Readers placed throughout the facility pick up the signal and transmit location data to the software.

The product, which uses an FM transmission signal, also monitors the tags' battery status. If a badge is removed without authorization, an anti-tampering signal is emitted from the chip and is picked up by the readers, which have a read range of 1.5 to 50 feet (0.5 to 15 meters). The system also alerts staff when the battery in a bracelet is running low.

The system can function even if a hospital's local-area network were to go down. The readers are designed to continue monitoring the tags. If a baby or patient were to pass through an exit without authorization, the reader would send an alert to nurses or security staff automatically via email, SMS message, pager or other predefined method. The message relays the exact location where the alarm was triggered, along with the time and date.

The software allows hospitals to create audit reports based on staff and patient activities. The reports can include information such as the patient's name, the event, location, time and date. Personnel records can also be maintained in the software's database for both staff and patients. Those records can include digital photographs of the subject, parents or guardians' names.501

36. "GSI to Produce Thin-Film Batteries": RFID Journal: May 29, 2003

The RFID Journal reported that, "Printed batteries that can power low-cost active RFID labels will likely hit the market next year."

Graphic Solutions, a Burr Ridge, Illinois-based custom print house, has become the first US company to acquire a non-exclusive license from Power Paper to manufacture thin, flexible, environmentally-friendly batteries for the North American market.

Thin-film batteries have the potential to bridge the gap between low-cost passive RFD transponders, which have a limited read range, and more expensive active (battery-powered) tags that can broadcast a signal much further and be read more consistently.502

37. "Singapore Fights SARS with RFID": RFID Journal: June 4, 2003

The RFID Journal reported in a summary statement that, "Hospitals are tracking visitors, patients and staff, so they can trace all of the people with whom a suspected SARS patient has had contact."

Radio frequency identification is playing a role in the global fight to contain Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS. Two hospitals in Singapore are now testing an RFID system that tracks the movement of staff, visitors and patients so they can trace all of the people with whom a suspected SARS patient had contact.

"With this system, exact information on when a person enters or leaves a certain area is recorded automatically," says Joshua Lee, program manager for the Defense Science & Technology Agency (DSTA), which developed the system. "When needed, information on the persons he could have been in contact with can be obtained quickly, using the search and query capability of the system"...

All patients, visitors and staff who enter areas in the two hospitals where the trials are being conducted must provide their name and contact information at the registration counter, so they can be contacted later if necessary. They are then given a card with an embedded RFID transponder that has a small battery.

Hospital employees have also been given ID cards with the transponders in them. The active devices continually transmit RFID signals at 433 MHz to readers placed around the facilities. The emergency department at Alexandra hospital is divided into several zones. A receiver has been installed in the ceiling of each zone...

38. Richard Shim: "Wal-Mart to Throw Its Weight behind RFID": CNET News.com: June 5, 2003

CNET News.com Staff Writer Richard Shim reported on Wal-Mart's expected role in endorsing RFID.

Inventory management technology that uses wireless signals to track products from the factory to store shelves is set to win a major new ally next week: Wal-Mart.

The retail giant is expected to throw its weight behind RFID (radio frequency identification) technology at the Retail Systems 2003 industry conference in Chicago on Tuesday. Sources familiar with the company's plans said executives will make a presentation encouraging its top 100 suppliers to start using wireless inventory tracking equipment--chips affixed to products, and scanners in warehouses--by 2005...

Suppliers are already exploring the use of RFID technology in tracking goods from the factory to warehouses. But backing from retailers is considered important because it could ultimately allow products to be tracked on store shelves...

In the past, Wal-Mart has helped to promote other technologies that have helped to streamline inventory and supply-chain management. Teaming with K-Mart and other retailers in the 1980s, Wal-Mart helped to promote the use of bar code scanning.

A bar code standard was approved in 1973, but by 1984 only 15,000 suppliers were using codes on their products. Wal-Mart threw its weight behind bar codes in 1984 and by 1987 75,000 suppliers were using bar codes, according to AMR Research.

As it looks to cut costs, Wal-Mart has been quicker with its support of RFID technology than with bar codes. And others are following, such as CVS, Target, Lowe's and Home Depot.

RFID-related technologies such as EPC (Electronic Product Codes) are gradually gaining industry support, which should help penetration...

EPC is being developed by the Auto-ID Center and the Uniform Code Council, and many see it becoming commonplace in pallets and cases over the next five years, according to Paul Fox, a Gillette representative.

Although cartons and pallets are the focus of RFID now, the technology isn't expected to truly take off until RFID tags are used on store shelves to give more up-to-date information on sales and in-store inventory. Trials are ongoing, but cost is the major hitch with such tags.503

39. "Wal-Mart Draws Line in the Sand": RFID Journal: June 11, 2003

An RFID Journal summary sentence stated, "CIO Linda Dillman made it clear that Wal-Mart intends to have its top suppliers put RFID tags on pallets and cases beginning Jan. 1, 2005."

A packed room at Retail Systems 2003/VICS Collaborative Commerce heard Wal-Mart CIO Linda Dillman say that Wal-Mart intends to ask its top 100 suppliers to put tags carrying Electronic Product Codes on pallets and cases by Jan. 1, 2005.

Dillman said that Wal-Mart would begin contacting the suppliers over the next few months. She said the company would probably not issue a compliance order in 2004, but would move in that direction over time. "It will become a requirement, like EDI, because if we can't track your product with [EPC tags], it's an added cost for us that we have to pass on to our customers," she said [editorial brackets in original].504

40. Nearly 60 Percent of RFID End Users Interested in Item-Level Tracking: RFID Journal: June 16, 2003

RFID Journal reported that a survey found that almost 60 percent of RFID end users were interested in item-level tracking.

A new survey, released at last week's RFID Journal Live! executive conference, indicates that there is a great deal of interest in RFID, but integration with back-end systems is almost as big a hindrance to RFID adoption as the cost of the tags. The survey was conducted by Allied Business Intelligence in conjunction with RFID Journal.

Of the end users that responded to the survey, nearly 60 percent said they were interested in deploying RFID for item-level tracking in the supply chain. About 13 percent of those people said they would use more than 500 million tags annually, when a system is fully deployed...

The survey is based on responses from 249 people who did not represent a scientific sample. Most respondents came from large companies. More than 60 percent said their company had revenue of greater than $100 million, and 82 percent said it had a national or global presence.505

H. Product Codes: RFID Electronic Product Codes (EPC) and Bar Code Universal Product Codes (UPC)

There is evidence that RFID Electronic Product Codes (EPC) are expected to replace Universal Product Codes (UPC).

1. RFID Chips Likely to Replace Many Bar Code Applications: InformationWeek: June 18, 2001

An InformationWeek article comments on the likely future of RFID chips in relation to bar codes.

Eventually, the wireless IDs are likely to replace many bar-code applications, in which retailers and manufacturers continue to invest.506

2. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Chips May Replace Bar Codes: EE Times: January 7, 2002

An EE Times article suggests that the future may see radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips replace bar codes.

Radio-frequency identification chips, which have found a home in applications ranging from toll road passes to smart retail shelves, may be close to taking up residence in the human body...

A consortium of major manufacturers has sought to push the technology as a replacement for bar codes in everyday products ranging from cereal boxes to shaving cream cans, but the cost hasn't dropped low enough to make that feasible.507

3. Smart Tags May Replace Bar-Code: The Economist: February 6, 2003

The Economist suggests that smart tags may replace the bar-code.

RFID systems are made up of readers and "smart tags"—microchips attached to antennas. When the tag nears a reader, it broadcasts the information contained in its chip...

If they catch on, smart tags will soon be made in their trillions and will replace the bar-code on the packaging of almost everything that consumer-goods giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever make...

Nobody had got it, says Kevin Ashton, who runs the centre [Auto-ID Centre, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts]. Big technology firms such as Intel and Motorola thought it was impossible to build a tag costing a few cents. Traditional RFID makers, who grew up without the internet, did not understand the beauty of removing information from the tag and storing it centrally. So Messrs [Sanjay] Sarma [the centre's research director] and Ashton did the work themselves, designing specifications for a new chip and inventing new software and network services to support their idea.508

4. When Will RFID Chips Replace Bar Codes?: EE Times: March 12, 2003

An EE Times article raises the question of when RFID chips will replace bar codes.

Exactly when RFID chips will replace widely used bar code technology remains a hotly debated question in the industry. 509

5. RFID Not Simply Bar Code Replacement: RFID Journal: March 10, 2003

Bob Violino, writing in a RFID Journal "Special Sponsored Section" that focuses on Accenture, notes the relationship between RFID and bar codes.

He [Glover Ferguson, Chief Scientist at Accenture] warns that companies should not wait to implement RFID and that businesspeople should not consider it as simply a bar code replacement.510

6. RFID Technology Prices Can Challenge Bar-Code: Philips Semiconductors: 2003

Philips Semiconductors describes I⋅CODE its technology for smart labels, and lists five "Features," one of which is listed below inasmuch as it provides a conceptual overview of RFID technology.

I⋅CODE is the most advanced technology for smart labels…With I⋅CODE, RFID technology is available for the first time at prices which can challenge bar-code in its key strongholds where bar code information is a limiting factor to the application.

Features

Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)...511

7. "How Smart Labels Will Work": RFID: HowStuffWorks, Inc.

Kevin Bonsor provides an explanation of RFID tags. An introductory paragraph compares the UPC bar code with RFID tags.

Long checkout lines at the grocery store are one of the biggest complaints about the shopping experience. By 2005, these lines could disappear when the ubiquitous Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code is replaced by smart labels, also called radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. RFID tags are intelligent bar codes that can talk to a networked system to track every product that you put in your shopping cart.512

8. "Goodbye UPC Bar Codes": Associated Press on cnn.com: July 9, 2003

An Associated Press article with a dateline of Washington, appearing on CNN.com/Technology, states that RFID is expected to replace bar codes within two decades.

Razor blades and medicines packaged with pinpoint-sized computer chips and tiny antennae to send retailers and manufacturers a wealth of information about the products -- and those who buy them -- will start appearing in grocery stores and pharmacies this year.

Within two decades, the minuscule transmitters are expected to replace the familiar product bar codes, and retailers are already envisioning the conveniences the new technology, called "radio frequency identification," will bring -- even as others are raising privacy concerns.513

I. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Reader System: Published Concerns

1. Declan McCullagh: "RFID Tags: Big Brother in Small Packages": Introduction to RFID: CNET News.com: January 13, 2003

Declan McCullagh, noting the potentially broad use of RFID tags, responds to the question he posed, "Could we be constantly tracked through our clothes, shoes or even our cash in the future?"

I'm not talking about having a microchip surgically implanted beneath your skin, which is what Applied Digital Systems of Palm Beach, Fla., would like to do. Nor am I talking about John Poindexter's creepy Total Information Awareness spy-veillance system, which I wrote about last week.

Instead, in the future, we could be tracked because we'll be wearing, eating and carrying objects that are carefully designed to do so.

The generic name for this technology is RFID, which stands for radio frequency identification. RFID tags are miniscule microchips, which already have shrunk to half the size of a grain of sand. They listen for a radio query and respond by transmitting their unique ID code. Most RFID tags have no batteries: They use the power from the initial radio signal to transmit their response.

You should become familiar with RFID technology because you'll be hearing much more about it soon.514

2. "Opposition to RFID Tracking Grows": RFID Journal: January 20, 2003

In an introductory, overview sentence of a news article, the RFID Journal writes, "News that Gillette will purchase 500 million tags has stirred privacy concerns among consumers." An excerpt from the text of the article elaborates on this theme.

The news that The Gillette Company plans to purchase 500 million radio frequency identification tags was widely reported around the world. One result has been a growing opposition to the use of RFID in consumer products...

C/Net, the technology news site, recently ran a story by its Washington bureau chief, Declan McCullagh, entitled RFID tags: Big Brother in small packages. The article raises concerns about people being tracked through their positions...

RFID Journal has also received an increasing number of angry e-mails to the editor since it first broke the news of the Gillette purchase back on Nov. 15 (see Gillette to Buy 500 Million EPC Tags).515

3. "Fear of Big Brother": RFID Journal: January 20, 2003

In an introductory, overview sentence of an opinion piece, the RFID Journal writes, "As more people learn about the potential for using RFID to track purchases, privacy concerns are growing." An excerpt from the text of the article elaborates on this theme.

Since Nov. 15, when RFID Journal broke the news that Gillette planned to buy 500 million RFID tags, opposition to RFID tracking has been growing...

I've been receiving angry e-mails because RFID Journal is a proponent of the technology. That's understandable, I guess. But the truth is, I think the concerns about invasion of privacy are justified. History has shown us that self-regulation rarely works, that there are always companies that will act unscrupulously...516

4. Global Surveillance Network: CASPIAN Press Release: March 13, 2003

The lead sentence of a March 13, 2003, CASPIAN press release headline reads, "Hidden sensors in clothing may fuel global surveillance network."

An American consumer privacy group has called for an immediate, worldwide boycott of Benetton (NYSE:BNG) following disclosures that the company has placed identification and tracking devices into its clothing products.

CASPIAN (Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering) announced today that it will oppose Benetton's plans to place Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chips into clothing labels intended for the consumer market. RFID chips function as tiny radio transmitters, allowing clothing to be identified and tracked at a distance.

According to a joint press release yesterday by Benetton and chip manufacturer Philips Electronics, the devices are "imperceptible to the wearer and remain in individual items of clothing throughout their lifetime." The chips have already begun appearing in Benetton's "Sisley" clothing line.517

5. "Retail Tracking Technology Could Turn World into Fishbowl;" Reuters: April 8, 2003

A Reuters article reported on evaluative aspects of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) usage.

Tiny wireless transmitters promise to link tires, razors and other everyday items to the Internet, creating a world where money actually talks and the walls really do have ears. Marketing experts say the new technology, known as radio-frequency identification, or RFID, could revolutionize the retail industry as stores personalize service and manage inventory more efficiently.

But civil-liberties advocates say the sensors could also enable an Orwellian world where sales clerks and law-enforcement officials, with the wave of a wand, could find out the contents of a purse...

"When I found out about it, it chilled me more than anything else I've encountered," said consumer-privacy advocate Katherine Albrecht, a Harvard doctoral researcher who has called for a boycott of Italian fashion company Benetton, which is testing RFID technology for possible use...

One major Las Vegas casino is looking to embed tags in employee uniforms to make sure that thieves cannot infiltrate gaming floors by impersonating dealers, said James Hall, head of technology research at consulting firm Adventure.

"We are entering a world of what we call 'reality online' in which every manufactured item is linked to the Internet, Hall told executives at a recent conference in Germany...

"The interesting thing about technology is once it's deployed, people come out of the woodwork and say, 'What other uses are there for it?' " said computer consultant Richard M. Smith.

Technologists say they are not blind to these concerns. Privacy advocate Simson Garfinkel, working with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AutoID Center, has proposed an "RFID Bill of Rights" that would let consumers know when and why RFID tags are being used and give them the right to deactivate the tags at checkout.

The industry-backed AutoID Center also promotes a standard that would allow cashiers to "kill" the chips by blowing their fuses with a jolt of electricity upon purchase. Benetton has also said it will allow consumers themselves to disable the tags if it decides to implement them.

"Companies know they're not going to get any benefits if they try to ram this down people's throats," said the RFID Journal's Roberti.

But such voluntary efforts may not be enough, Albrecht said, as the massive amounts of data collected by RFID tags may prove too tempting for marketers and law enforcement. What's needed are laws to regulate usage, such as one soon to be introduced in the Massachusetts state legislature, she said.518

6. "Marketer's Dream or Consumer's Nightmare": RFID Journal Live!: June 13, 2003

"RFID Journal Live! is a high-level executive conference designed to give leaders from both Global 1000 companies and midsize enterprises a deeper understanding of the latest advances in RFID and the benefits and challenges the technology presents."519 A 10:20 am June 13, 2003, breakout session is entitled, "Marketer's Dream or Consumer's Nightmare?"

RFID will fundamentally change the way companies market because intelligent shelves will, for the first time, provide insight into customer behavior in the store. Marketers will know in real time how consumers react to a price decrease, or a special promotion. But many privacy advocates are staunchly opposed to the idea of having RFID tags in individual products. They fear "Big Brother" will be able to track the goods we buy, the clothes we wear, and even the places we visit. Is there a way for marketers to use RFID effectively without infringing on customers privacy? Is having an opt-in program enough? And how can governments ensure that data from RFID tags won't be abused?520

J. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Reader System: Proposed Protections for Privacy Concerns

1. Proposed Response to Privacy Concerns: Disable RFID Tags

One proposed response to privacy concerns stemming from the addition of RFID microchips to sundry items is to disable RFID tags at the checkout counter.

a. "The Privacy Nightmare": RFID Journal: August 12, 2002

An introductory sentence to an opinion piece by Mark Roberti, Editor of RFID Journal, notes that, "Only an aggressive PR campaign and an enforceable code of ethics will get people to accept self-regulat[ion] of RFID tracking of consumer products."

What can be done? Three things. First, and most obvious, the industry needs to come up with a sensible opt-in policy — that is, companies agree that they won't track consumers' purchases unless those consumers expressly agree to it through some kind of loyalty program...

Second, I think the industry needs to begin a loosely coordinated PR campaign as soon as a set of proposals is drafted. In politics, you always try to define your opponent in the public's min[d] before he has a chance to define himself. The same principle applies here. The public needs to be convinced RFID is good before scaremongers convince them it is bad...

Even if a positive image of RFID is created, it may not be enough to overcome negative articles that appear later. The way to do that, in my view, is to make self-regulation enforceable.521

b. Declan McCullagh: "RFID Tags: Big Brother in Small Packages": CNET News.com: January 13, 2003

Declan McCullagh does not see a privacy threat to RFID tags unless they are active when the purchaser leaves a store. Therefore Declan McCullagh's privacy concerns would be met by implementing "four voluntary guidelines."

The privacy threat comes when RFID tags remain active once you leave a store. That's the scenario that should raise alarms--and currently the RFID industry seems to be giving mixed signals about whether the tags will be disabled or left enabled by default...

If you care about privacy, now's your chance to let the industry know how you feel. (And, no, I'm not calling for new laws or regulations.) Tell them that RFID tags are perfectly acceptable inside stores to track pallets and crates, but that if retailers wish to use them on consumer goods, they should follow four voluntary guidelines.

First, consumers should be notified--a notice on a checkout receipt would work--when RFID tags are present in what they're buying. Second, RFID tags should be disabled by default at the checkout counter. Third, RFID tags should be placed on the product's packaging instead of on the product when possible. Fourth, RFID tags should be readily visible and easily removable.522

c. "Fear of Big Brother": RFID Journal: January 20, 2003

An "Opinion" piece dedicated to addressing RFID-related privacy concerns, Mark Roberti, Editor of RFID Journal, concisely restates three proposals that he had earlier suggested in an August 12, 2002, article. Roberti then adds a fourth suggestion.

My views on this are very simple and clear. I'll restate the three points I made back in August:

1. The retail industry should devise an opt-in strategy, where only consumers who agree to allow their purchases to be tracked are tracked.

2. There should be some industry mechanism for penalizing those who do not adhere strictly to the guidelines established.

3. There should be an aggressive campaign to educate people about the policy and about the consumer benefits of RFID.

And I'll add one more: National governments should pass guidelines about how law enforcement bodies can use RFID for investigative purposes.523

2. Unanswered Questions about RFID Privacy Concerns

However, such a consumer protection scheme of disabling RFID tags at the checkout counter does not address a number of additional concerns.

a. Global Reader Network: CASPIAN: March 13, 2003

If the RFID human chip implant is used for purchasing items and becomes standardized in the right hand or forehead in the future, the current, major concern with RFID microchips attached to items is that such a system concomitantly puts in place a global RFID microchip reader network that could then be used to read RFID human chip implants.

From a secular perspective, the "News Article" Web page of a CASPIAN: Boycott Benetton Web site indicated an awareness that the significance of widely distributed RFID wireless chips lies importantly in the concomitantly widespread distribution of microchip readers. This awareness is seen by the following heading introducing articles about RFID devices.

Pervasive Global Reader Network as Envisioned by RFID Proponents524

b. Disabling RFID tags will not eliminate the privacy issues related to the fact that currently computer systems already have the inherent ability to link an individual's purchase information with credit card, check, and contact or non-contact RFID smart card transactions.

c. "Commercial coercion" could come into play for those who elected to have RFID tags disabled. For example, two theoretical scenarios quickly come to mind. First, one can easily imagine the complications that could develop related to returns and warranty service for items with a disabled RFID tag. Second, it is also conceivable that longer checkout lines could face those who did not choose to breeze through RFID readers that read enabled RFID tags accompanied by non-contact smart cards.

d. The intrinsic purpose of some RFID tags lies in the fact that they remain active. Vehicle tires provide a clear example of items that are designed to retain active RFID microchips.

Frontline Solutions, March 1, 2003, reported on two pilot projects employing RFID.

Two major pilot programs put in place in the last two months could end up catapulting radio frequency identification (RFID) into a mainstream supply chain technology...

In an equally as promising development, Michelin North America Inc., Greenville, S.C., announced it is testing RFID tags to meet federal government regulations for tire traceability in the event of a recall.

Once testing is completed (about 18 months), Michelin-which is making the tag technology available to its competitors-could begin producing RFID-tagged tires for passenger vehicles and light trucks in the 2005 model year. "Applications like [the one at Michelin] will drive the ability of the tire industry to provide full track-and-trace capabilities," says Saleem Miyan, global strategic manager, Philips Semiconductors, Einhoven, The Netherlands.

Miyan expects these applications, particularly the one at Michelin, to kick-start demand for the whole RFID industry. "The market has been waiting for someone to be first," he says, adding that the tire application has the additional weight of government regulations and the existence of an accepted industry standard between it.525

3. Proposed Federal Legislation: "RFID Right to Know Act of 2003"

a. Press Release: Proposed Federal Legislation: "RFID Right to Know Act of 2003": June 11, 2003

A June 11, 2003 CASPIAN press release unveiled "federal legislation calling for mandatory disclosures on consumer products containing radio frequency identification (RFID) chips."

CASPIAN (Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering) today unveils federal legislation calling for mandatory disclosures on consumer products containing radio frequency identification (RFID) chips. The "RFID Right to Know Act of 2003" would protect consumers against unwittingly purchasing products embedded with remote surveillance devices.526

b. Proposed Federal Legislation: "RFID Right to Know Act of 2003": CASPIAN

CASPIAN's "RFID Right to Know Act of 2003" is "[p]roposed legislation to mandate labeling of RFID-enabled products and consumer privacy protections." It is an Act:

To require that commodities containing radio frequency identification tags bear labels stating that fact, to protect consumer privacy, and for other purposes.527

K. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Readers: Read RFID Human Microchip Implant

Once RFID readers are in place to read both RFID tags in individual items being sold, and RFID smart cards that have debit card features, the same reader will presumably be able to read RFID human microchip implants. Thus the widespread usage of RFID tags in products that is currently emerging will provide universal readers for RFID human microchip implants.

L. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Readers: RFID Human Microchip Implants Useable for Buying and Selling

Human microchip implants, to the extent utilized, will then be available for use in buying and selling.






422John Lettice; "First People Injected with Id Chips, Sales Drive Kicks Off;" The Register; published June 10, 2002 at 08:52 GMT; http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/54/25640.html; p. 1 of 3/7/03 4:20 PM printout.
423Deborah Circelli; "ID Chip to Track Man’s Whereabouts;" News: PalmBeachPost.com; published May 10, 2002; <http://www.gopbi.com/partners/pbpost/epaper/editions/friday/news_c3bd443b30d700aa00be.html>; pp. 2-3 of 5/10/02 8:04 AM printout.
424Cheryl Rosen; "The Fast Track;" InformationWeek; published June 18, 2001; http://www.informationweek.com/story/IWK20010618S0001; p. 1 of 3/31/03 printout.
425Chana R. Schoenberger; "The Internet of Things;" Forbes.com; published March 18, 2002; http://www.alientechnology.com/news/The_Internet_of_Things.htm; p. 1 of 3/18/03 3:35 PM printout; and "About the Technology: Creating an Internet of Things;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech_creating.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 10:54 AM printout.
426Simon London; "Alien Concept Coming to a Store Near You;" Financial Times: published March 5, 2003; http://www.equitekcapital.com/Library/FT.com - Comment & Analysis - Inside track.htm; pp. 1-2 of 3/19/03 1:56 PM printout.
427Bob Violino; "Get Ready for Reality Online;" RFID Journal; published March 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/343; p. 1 of 3/18/03 8:20 AM printout; and "Seize the Day: The Silent Commerce Imperative;" Accenture; pdf created September 20, 2002, based on icon Get Info; http://www.accenture.com/xdoc/en/services/technology/vision/SiezeTheDay.pdf; p. 2 of 3/19/03 printout.
428Bob Violino; "Get Ready for Reality Online;" RFID Journal; published March 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/343; p. 1 of 3/18/03 8:20 AM printout.
429Bob Violino; "Get Ready for Reality Online;" RFID Journal; published March 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/343; p. 1 of 3/18/03 8:20 AM printout.
430John G. Spooner, Staff Writer; "Visa Readies Wireless Smart Cards" CNET News.com; published September 19, 2002 10:05 AM PT; http://news.com.com/2100-1017-958612.html; p. 1 of 2/18/03 10:08 AM printout.
431"Japanese Promote Ubiquitous RFID;" RFID Journal; published March 21, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/341/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/21/03 8:37 AM printout; and Marc Langheinrich; Distributed Systems Group, Institute for Pervasive Computing, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; pdf created September 14, 2002, based on icon Get Info; <http://www.inf.ethz.ch/vs/publ/papers/uc2002-pws.pdf>; p. 1 of 3/19/03 printout.
432Scott Kirsner; "Building a 'Radar for Everyday Products';" Newsweek; published March 18, 2002; http://www.alientechnology.com/library/pdf/Radar_for_Products.pdf; p. 1 of 3/19/03 printout.
433"Gillette, Michelin Begin RFID Pilots;" Frontline Solutions; published March 1, 2003; http://www.frontlinetoday.com/frontline/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=48562; p. 1 of 3/28/03 8:30 AM printout.
434"Identification;" Philips Semiconductors; copyright 2003; http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/markets/identification/products/icode/ic/; p. 1 of 3/29/03 3:56 PM printout.
435"Opening of the Auto-ID Center Lab at the University of St. Gallen (HSG); Auto-ID Center; pdf created March 27, 2002, based on icon Get Info; http://autoidcenter.com/media/StGallen_lab.pdf; p. 6 of 4/8/03 printout.
436"Opening of the Auto-ID Center Lab at the University of St. Gallen (HSG); Auto-ID Center; pdf created March 27, 2002, based on icon Get Info; http://autoidcenter.com/media/StGallen_lab.pdf; p. 6 of 4/8/03 printout.
437"Retail Tracking Technology Could Turn World into Fishbowl;" Reuters (Washington) article on usatoday.com; published April 8, 2003; http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2003-04-08-retail-tags_x.htm; p. 1 of 4/9/03 5:16 PM printout.
438Cheryl Rosen; "The Fast Track;" InformationWeek; published June 18, 2001; http://www.informationweek.com/story/IWK20010618S0001; pp. 1-3 of 3/31/03 printout.
439Scott Kirsner; "Building a 'Radar for Everyday Products';" Newsweek; published March 18, 2002; http://www.alientechnology.com/library/pdf/Radar_for_Products.pdf; p. 1 of 3/19/03 printout.
440Chana R. Schoenberger; "The Internet of Things;" Forbes.com; published March 18, 2002; http://www.alientechnology.com/news/The_Internet_of_Things.htm; pp. 1-4 of 3/18/03 3:35 PM printout.
441Kevin Maney; "New Chips Could Make Everyday Items 'Talk';" USA Today; published April 11, 2002; http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2002/04/12/tinyband.htm; p. 1 of 3/21/03 4:34 PM printout.
442Kevin Maney; "New Chips Could Make Everyday Items 'Talk';" USA Today; published April 11, 2002; http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2002/04/12/tinyband.htm; pp. 2-4 of 3/21/03 4:34 PM printout.
443"The Manhattan Project;" RFID Journal; published July 22, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/159; p. 1 of 2/18/03 9:51 AM printout.
444"RFID Offers Benefits Today;" RFID Journal; published September 4, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/63; pp. 1-2 of 3/14/03 2:54 PM printout.
445"Seize the Day: The Silent Commerce Imperative;" Accenture; pdf created September 20, 2002, based on icon Get Info; http://www.accenture.com/xdoc/en/services/technology/vision/SiezeTheDay.pdf; p. 2 of 3/19/03 printout.
446"Alien Technology Seen in Chicago;" RFID Journal; published September 24, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/76; pp. 1-2 of 2/18/03 9:48 AM printout.
447"New Unit for Active Smart Labels;" RFID Journal; published October 29, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/243/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 5/30/02 8:25 AM printout.
448"Gillette to Buy 500 Million EPC Tags;”" RFID Journal; published November 15, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/115; p. 1 of 2/18/03 9:32 AM printout.
449"The World Just Changed;" RFID Journal; published November 18, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/146; pp. 1-2 of 2/18/03 9:36 AM printout.
450"About the Center;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthecenter.asp; p. 1 of 3/19/03 7:35 AM printout.
451"About the Center;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthecenter.asp; p. 1 of 3/19/03 7:35 AM printout.
452"The New Network: Identify Any Object Anywhere Automatically;" Auto-ID Center; pdf created December 18, 2002, based on icon Get Info; http://www.autoidcenter.org/new_media/brochures/ENGLISH_AUTO_ID_CENTRE.pdf; p. 5 of 3/19/03 printout.
453"About the Center: Our Sponsors;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthecenter_oursponsors.asp; p. 1 of 3/19/03 11:54 AM printout.
454"About the Center: Our Sponsors: Board of Overseers;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthecenter_oursponsors.asp; p. 1 of 3/19/03 11:52 AM printout.
455"About the Center: Our Sponsors: Technology Board;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthecenter_oursponsors.asp; p. 1 of 3/19/03 11:52 AM printout.
456"About the Technology: Introduction;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 10:55 AM printout.
457"About the Technology: What is Automatic Identification?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech_whatis.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 10:48 AM printout.
458"About the Technology: Why Focus on Radio Frequency Identification?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech_whyfocus.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 10:53 AM printout.
459"About the Technology: The Importance of Tracking Individual Items;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech_theimportance.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 10:53 AM printout.
460"About the Technology: Creating an Internet of Things;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech_creating.asp; pp. 1-2 of 3/24/03 10:54 AM printout.
461"About the Technology: Identifying Trillions of Items;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthetech_identifying.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 10:48 AM printout.
462"The Latest News: Jan/Feb 2003: Auto-ID Center Launches New Website;" Auto-ID Center; published January/February 2003; http://www.autoidcenter.org/thelatestnews_monthlyreport_janfeb_03d.asp; p. 1 of 3/24/03 3:39 PM printout.
463"The Latest News: Jan/Feb 2003: Auto-ID Center Opens Lab in Japan;" Auto-ID Center; published January/February 2003; http://www.autoidcenter.org/thelatestnews_monthlyreport_janfeb_03.asp; p. 1 of 3/21/03 3:14 PM printout.
464"The Latest News: Mar/Apr 2003: Auto-ID Center and Tokyo Ubiquitous ID Center Plan Alliance;" Auto-ID Center; published March/February 2003; http://www.autoidcenter.org/thelatestnews_monthlyreport_marapr_03f.asp; p. 1 of 6/11/03 8:22 AM printout.
465"Q&A: Field Test: I've Read about a Test that the Auto-ID Center Is Conducting. What Is Being Tested?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/qanda.asp?CategoryID=5&Section=1&QuestionID=7; p. 1 of 3/24/03 3:32 PM printout.
466"Q&A: Field Test: Where Is The Field Test Located, and Who Is Participating?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/qanda.asp?CategoryID=5&Section=1&QuestionID=8; p. 1 of 3/24/03 3:32 PM printout.
467"Q&A: Field Test: When Will The Test Be Done, and What Are You Hoping to Accomplish from It?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/qanda.asp?CategoryID=5&Section=1&QuestionID=9; p. 1 of 3/24/03 3:32 PM printout.
468"Q&A: About the Center: What Will the Center Actually Deliver and When?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/qanda.asp?CategoryID=1&Section=1&QuestionID=30; p. 1 of 3/19/03 11:59 AM printout.
469"Q&A: About the Center: What Makes the Auto-ID Center Unique? Is There Any Competition?;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/qanda.asp?CategoryID=1&Section=1&QuestionID=32; p. 1 of 3/19/03 12:00 PM printout.
470"RFID the Hot Topic at Retail Show;" RFID Journal; published June 11, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/461/1/1/; p. 1 of 6/11/03 8:09 AM printout.
471Michelle Kessler; "Several Consumer Products to Get 'Tagged';" USA Today; published January 27, 2003; http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2003-01-27-rfid_x.htm; p. 1 of 3/18/03 4:40 PM printout.
472"RFID Rising;" Line56; published February 13, 2003; http://www.line56.com/articles/default.asp?ArticleID=4418&ml=3; p. 1 of 3/18/03 5:00 PM printout.
473"RFID: The Next Fashion from Italy?;" RFID Journal; published February 19, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/311; pp. 1-2 of 3/12/03 3:50 PM printout.
474Claudia H. Deutsch and Barnaby J. Feder; "A Radio Chip in Every Consumer Product;" nytimes.com; published February 25, 2003; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/25/technology/25THEF.html?pagewanted=print&position=top; p. 1 of 2/25/03 2:40 PM printout.
475"RFID Made Progress in 2002;" Frontline Solutions; published February 18, 2003; http://www.frontlinetoday.com/frontline/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=46871; p. 1 of 3/18/03 4:58 PM printout.
476"RFID System Secures Idle PCs;" RFID Journal; published February 27, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/320/1/1/; p. 1 of 3/12/03 3:37 PM printout.
477"Matrics Unveils Two EPC Readers;" RFID Journal; published February 28, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/324/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/12/03 3:40 PM printout.
478"Highlights From Recent Issues: A New Fashion Statement?"; Privacy Journal; published March 2003: summary of February 2003 edition article in the March 2003 edition; http://www.privacyjournal.net/newsletter.htm 479"Gillette, Michelin Begin RFID Pilots;" Frontline Solutions; published March 1, 2003; http://www.frontlinetoday.com/frontline/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=48562; p. 1 of 3/28/03 8:30 AM printout.
480Simon London; "Alien Concept Coming to a Store Near You;" Financial Times: published March 5, 2003; http://www.equitekcapital.com/Library/FT.com - Comment & Analysis - Inside track.htm; pp. 1-2 of 3/19/03 1:56 PM printout.
481"Getting to 0HIO;" RFID Journal; published March 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/336/1/1; pp. 1-2 of 3/12/03 4:21 PM printout.
482Bob Violino; "Get Ready for Reality Online;" RFID Journal; published March 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/343; pp. 1, 3 of 3/18/03 8:20 AM printout.
483"Benetton Selects Philips to Introduce Smart Labels across 5,000 Worldwide Stores;" Philips Press Release; published March 11, 2003; <http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/news/content/file_936.html>; p. 1 of 3/20/03 7:43 AM printout.
484Jim Krane, AP Technology Writer; "Benetton Clothing to Carry Tiny Tracking Transmitters;" SFGate.com; published March 11, 2003 22:20 PST; http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2003/03/11/financial1508EST0170.DTL; pp. 1-3 of 3/20/03 7:40 AM printout.
485"Benetton to Tag 15 Million Items;" RFID Journal; published March 12, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/344/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/18/03 10:29 AM printout.
486Junko Yoshida; "Clothier Benetton Adopts Philips' RFID Technology for 'Smart' Labels;" EE Times; published March 12, 2003 4:41 p.m. EST; http://www.eetimes.com/sys/news/OEG20030311S0028; p. 1 of 3/20/03 7:42 AM printout.
487"Benetton to Tag 15 Million Items;" RFID Journal; published March 12, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/344/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/18/03 10:29 AM printout.
488"Press Release Document; Benetton: No Microchips Present in Garments on Sale; No Decision Yet Taken On Industrial Use;" Benetton; published April 4, 2003; http://www.benetton.com/press/sito/press_releases/press2003/corporate/chip.html; p. 1 of 6/3/03 3:25 PM printout.
489"EPC in Fashion at Marks & Spencer;" RFID Journal; published April 11, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/377/1/1/; p. 2 of 4/11/03 8:26 AM printout.
490"Benetton Explains RFID Privacy Flap;" RFID Journal; published June 23, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/471/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 6/26/03 8:30 AM printout.
491"The Wal-Mart Factor;" RFID Journal; published March 17, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/346/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/17/03 1:45 PM printout.
492"EM Micro Readies New RFID Chip;" RFID Journal; published March 20, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/350/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/20/03 11:24 PM printout.
493"Japanese Promote Ubiquitous RFID;" RFID Journal; published March 21, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/341/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/21/03 8:37 AM printout.
494Marc Langheinrich; Distributed Systems Group, Institute for Pervasive Computing, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; pdf created September 14, 2002, based on icon Get Info; http://www.inf.ethz.ch/vs/publ/papers/uc2002-pws.pdf; p. 1 of 3/19/03 printout.
495"About the Center;" Auto-ID Center; published n.d.; http://www.autoidcenter.org/aboutthecenter.asp; p. 1 of 3/19/03 7:35 AM printout.
496"The Latest News: Jan/Feb 2003: Auto-ID Center Opens Lab in Japan;" Auto-ID Center; published January/February 2003; http://www.autoidcenter.org/thelatestnews_monthlyreport_janfeb_03.asp; p. 1 of 3/21/03 3:14 PM printout.
497"Auto-ID Lab Opens in Switzerland;" RFID Journal; published April 8, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/373/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 4/8/03 8:37 AM printout.
498"EPC in Fashion at Marks & Spencer;" RFID Journal; published April 11, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/377/1/1/; p. 1-2 of 4/11/03 8:26 AM printout.
499"RFID Makes Connections at Event;" RFID Journal; published April 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/375/1/1/; p. 1 of 4/10/03 8:27 AM printout.
500"Metro Opens 'Store of the Future' "; RFID Journal; published April 28, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/399/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 4/29/03 3:43 PM printout.
501Jennifer Maselli; "Xtag Unveils Infant Security System;" RFID Journal; published May 27, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/438/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 5/27/03 8:57 AM printout.
502Mary Lee; "GSI to Produce Thin-Film Batteries;" RFID Journal; published May 29, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/441/1/1/; p. 1 of 5/30/03 8:27 AM printout.
503Richard Shim; "Wal-Mart to Throw Its Weight behind RFID;" CNET News.com; published June 5, 2003 2:41 PM PT; http://news.com.com/2100-1008_3-1013767.html; pp. 1-2 of 6/18/03 8:35 AM printout.
504"Wal-Mart Draws Line in the Sand;" RFID Journal; published June 11, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/462/1/1/; p. 1 of 6/12/03 8:16 AM printout.
505"Integration Impeding Use of RFID;" RFID Journal; published June 16, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/453/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 6/16/03 9:03 AM printout.
506Cheryl Rosen; "The Fast Track;" InformationWeek; published June 18, 2001; http://www.informationweek.com/story/IWK20010618S0001; p. 1 of 3/31/03 printout.
507Charles J. Murray; "Injectable Chip Opens Door To 'Human Bar Code';" EE Times; published January 7, 2002 12:38 p.m. EST; http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20020104S0044; pp. 1, 3 of 3/9/02 3:30 PM printout.
508"The Best Thing since the Bar-Code;" The Economist; published February 6, 2003; http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=1563928; pp. 1-2 of 3/19/03 1:46 PM printout.
509Junko Yoshida; "Clothier Benetton Adopts Philips' RFID Technology for 'Smart' Labels;" EE Times; published March 12, 2003 4:41 p.m. EST; http://www.eetimes.com/sys/news/OEG20030311S0028; p. 2 of 3/20/03 7:42 AM printout.
510Bob Violino; "Get Ready for Reality Online;" RFID Journal; published March 10, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/343; p. 2 of 3/18/03 8:20 AM printout.
511"Identification;" Philips Semiconductors; copyright 2003; http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/markets/identification/products/icode/ic/; p. 1 of 3/29/03 3:56 PM printout.
512Kevin Bonsor; "How Smart Labels Will Work;" HowStuffWorks, Inc.; published n.d.; http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/smart-label.htm; p. 1 of 4/2/03 1:41 PM printout.
513"Goodbye UPC Bar Codes;" Associated Press on cnn.com; July 9, 2003 Posted 9:09 PM EDT (1309 GMT); http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/ptech/07/09/beamed.barcodes.ap/index.html; p. 1 of 7/9/03 9:44 AM printout.
514Declan McCullagh; "RFID Tags: Big Brother in Small Packages;" CNET News.com; published January 13, 2003; http://news.com.com/2010-1069-980325.html; p. 1 of 3/12/03 2:26 PM printout.
515"Opposition to RFID Tracking Grows;" RFID Journal; published January 20, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/275/1/1/; p. 1 of 3/12/03 4:41 PM printout.
516"Fear of Big Brother;" RFID Journal; published January 20, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/276/1/2/; p. 1 of 3/12/03 4:36 PM printout.
517"Consumer Group Calls for Immediate Worldwide Boycott of Benetton;" CASPIAN Press Release; March 13, 2003; http://www.boycottbenetton.org/PR_030313a.html; p. 1 of 3/29/03 4:52 PM printout.
518"Retail Tracking Technology Could Turn World into Fishbowl;" Reuters (Washington) article on usatoday.com; published April 8, 2003; http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2003-04-08-retail-tags_x.htm; pp. 1-3 of 4/9/03 5:16 PM printout.
519"RFID Journal Live!;" RFID Journal, Inc.; copyright 2002; <http://www.rfidjournallive.com/>; p. 1 of 3/29/03 6:09 PM printout.
520"Marketer's Dream or Consumer's Nightmare?: RFID Journal Live!;" RFID Journal, Inc.; copyright 2002; <http://www.rfidjournallive.com/agenda.html>; p. 4 of 3/17/03 2:54 PM printout.
521Mark Roberti; "The Privacy Nightmare;" RFID Journal; published August 12, 2002; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/144/1/1/; pp. 1-2 of 3/12/03 4:40 PM printout.
522Declan McCullagh; "RFID Tags: Big Brother in Small Packages;" CNET News.com; published January 13, 2003; http://news.com.com/2010-1069-980325.html; pp. 2-3 of 3/12/03 2:26 PM printout.
523"Fear of Big Brother;" RFID Journal; published January 20, 2003; http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/276/1/2/; pp. 1-2 of 3/12/03 4:36 PM printout.
524"News Articles;" CASPIAN: Boycott Benetton; published n.d.; http://www.boycottbenetton.org/news.html; p. 1 of 3/29/03 3:57 PM printout.
525"Gillette, Michelin Begin RFID Pilots;" Frontline Solutions; published March 1, 2003; http://www.frontlinetoday.com/frontline/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=48562; p. 1 of 3/28/03 8:30 AM printout.
526"Press Releases: Consumer Group Unveils RFID Labeling Legislation;" CASPIAN; published June 11, 2003; http://www.nocards.org/press/pressrelease06-11-03.shtml; p. 1 of 6/18/03 8:34 AM printout.
527"RFID Right to Know Act of 2003;" CASPIAN; published 2003; http://www.nocards.org/rfid/rfidbill.shtml; p. 1 of 6/18/03 8:28 AM printout.





Table of Contents



Previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Next